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### 2 Functionality of the FGA package

This chapter describes methods available from the FGA package.

In the following, let f be a free group created by FreeGroup(n), and let u, u1 and u2 be finitely generated subgroups of f created by Group or Subgroup, or computed from some other subgroup of f. Let elm be an element of f.

For example:

gap> f := FreeGroup( 2 );
<free group on the generators [ f1, f2 ]>
gap> u := Group( f.1^2, f.2^2, f.1*f.2 );
Group([ f1^2, f2^2, f1*f2 ])
gap> u1 := Subgroup( u, [f.1^2, f.1^4*f.2^6] );
Group([ f1^2, f1^4*f2^6 ])
gap> elm := f.1;
f1
gap> u2 := Normalizer( u, elm );
Group([ f1^2 ])


#### 2.1 New operations for free groups

These new operations are available for finitely generated subgroups of free groups:

##### 2.1-1 FreeGeneratorsOfGroup
 ‣ FreeGeneratorsOfGroup( u ) ( attribute )

returns a list of free generators of the finitely generated subgroup u of a free group.

The elements in this list form an N-reduced set. In addition to being a free (and thus minimal) generating set for u, this means that whenever v1, v2 and v3 are elements or inverses of elements of this list, then

• $$\textit{v1}\textit{v2}\neq1$$ implies $$|\textit{v1}\textit{v2}|\geq\max(|\textit{v1}|, |\textit{v2}|)$$, and

• $$\textit{v1}\textit{v2}\neq1$$ and $$\textit{v2}\textit{v3}\neq1$$ implies $$|\textit{v1}\textit{v2}\textit{v3}| > |\textit{v1}| - |\textit{v2}| + |\textit{v3}|$$

hold, where $$|.|$$ denotes the word length.

##### 2.1-2 RankOfFreeGroup
 ‣ RankOfFreeGroup( u ) ( attribute )
 ‣ Rank( u ) ( operation )

returns the rank of the finitely generated subgroup u of a free group.

##### 2.1-3 CyclicallyReducedWord
 ‣ CyclicallyReducedWord( elm ) ( operation )

returns the cyclically reduced form of elm.

#### 2.2 Method installations

This section lists operations that are already known to GAP. FGA installs new methods for them so that they can also be used with free groups. In cases where FGA installs methods that are usually only used internally, user functions are shown instead.

##### 2.2-1 Normalizer
 ‣ Normalizer( u1, u2 ) ( operation )
 ‣ Normalizer( u, elm ) ( operation )

The first variant returns the normalizer of the finitely generated subgroup u2 in u1.

The second variant returns the normalizer of $$\langle \textit{elm} \rangle$$ in the finitely generated subgroup u (see Normalizer (Reference: Normalizer) in the Reference Manual).

##### 2.2-2 RepresentativeAction
 ‣ RepresentativeAction( u, d, e ) ( operation )
 ‣ IsConjugate( u, d, e ) ( operation )

RepresentativeAction returns an element $$\textit{r} \in \textit{u}$$, where u is a finitely generated subgroup of a free group, such that $$\textit{d}^{\textit{r}}=\textit{e}$$, or fail, if no such r exists. d and e may be elements or subgroups of u.

IsConjugate returns a boolean indicating whether such an element r exists.

##### 2.2-3 Centralizer
 ‣ Centralizer( u, u2 ) ( operation )
 ‣ Centralizer( u, elm ) ( operation )

returns the centralizer of u2 or elm in the finitely generated subgroup u of a free group.

##### 2.2-4 Index
 ‣ Index( u1, u2 ) ( operation )
 ‣ IndexNC( u1, u2 ) ( operation )

return the index of u2 in u1, where u1 and u2 are finitely generated subgroups of a free group. The first variant returns fail if u2 is not a subgroup of u1, the second may return anything in this case.

##### 2.2-5 Intersection
 ‣ Intersection( u1, u2, \dots ) ( function )

returns the intersection of u1 and u2, where u1 and u2 are finitely generated subgroups of a free group.

##### 2.2-6 \in
 ‣ \in( elm, u ) ( method )

tests whether elm is contained in the finitely generated subgroup u of a free group.

##### 2.2-7 IsSubgroup
 ‣ IsSubgroup( u1, u2 ) ( function )

tests whether u2 is a subgroup of u1, where u1 and u2 are finitely generated subgroups of a free group.

##### 2.2-8 \=
 ‣ \=( u1, u2 ) ( method )

test whether the two finitely generated subgroups u1 and u2 of a free group are equal.

##### 2.2-9 MinimalGeneratingSet
 ‣ MinimalGeneratingSet( u ) ( attribute )
 ‣ SmallGeneratingSet( u ) ( attribute )
 ‣ GeneratorsOfGroup( u ) ( attribute )

return generating sets for the finitely generated subgroup u of a free group. MinimalGeneratingSet and SmallGeneratingSet return the same free generators as FreeGeneratorsOfGroup, which are in fact a minimal generating set. GeneratorsOfGroup also returns these generators, if no other generators were stored at creation time.

#### 2.3 Constructive membership test

It is not only possible to test whether an element is in a finitely generated subgroup of free group, this can also be done constructively. The idiomatic way to do so is by using a homomorphism.

Here is an example that computes how to write f.1^2 in the generators a=f1^2*f2^2 and b=f.1^2*f.2, checks the result, and then tries to write f.1 in the same generators:

gap> f := FreeGroup( 2 );
<free group on the generators [ f1, f2 ]>
gap> ua := f.1^2*f.2^2;; ub := f.1^2*f.2;;
gap> u := Group( ua, ub );;
gap> g := FreeGroup( "a", "b" );;
gap> hom := GroupHomomorphismByImages( g, u,
>             GeneratorsOfGroup(g),
>             GeneratorsOfGroup(u) );
[ a, b ] -> [ f1^2*f2^2, f1^2*f2 ]
gap> # how can f.1^2 be expressed?
gap> PreImagesRepresentative( hom, f.1^2 );
b*a^-1*b
gap> last ^ hom; # check this
f1^2
gap> ub * ua^-1 * ub; # another check
f1^2
gap> PreImagesRepresentative( hom, f.1 ); # try f.1
fail
gap> f.1 in u;
false


There are also lower level operations to get the same results.

##### 2.3-1 AsWordLetterRepInGenerators
 ‣ AsWordLetterRepInGenerators( elm, u ) ( operation )
 ‣ AsWordLetterRepInFreeGenerators( elm, u ) ( operation )

return a letter representation (see SectionÂ Reference: Representations for Associative Words in the GAP Reference Manual) of the given elm relative to the generators the group was created with or the free generators as returned by FreeGeneratorsOfGroup.

Continuing the above example:

gap> AsWordLetterRepInGenerators( f.1^2, u );
[ 2, -1, 2 ]
gap> AsWordLetterRepInFreeGenerators( f.1^2, u );
[ 2 ]


This means: to get f.1^2, multiply the second of the given generators with the inverse of the first and again with the second; or just take the second free generator.

#### 2.4 Automorphism groups of free groups

The FGA package knows presentations of the automorphism groups of free groups. It also allows to express an automorphism as word in the generators of these presentations. This sections repeats the GAP standard methods to do so and shows functions to obtain the generating automorphisms.

##### 2.4-1 AutomorphismGroup
 ‣ AutomorphismGroup( u ) ( attribute )

returns the automorphism group of the finitely generated subgroup u of a free group.

Only a few methods will work with this group. But there is a way to obtain an isomorphic finitely presented group:

##### 2.4-2 IsomorphismFpGroup
 ‣ IsomorphismFpGroup( group ) ( attribute )

returns an isomorphism of group to a finitely presented group. For automorphism groups of free groups, the FGA package implements the presentations of [Neu33]. The finitely presented group itself can then be obtained with the command Range.

Here is an example:

gap> f := FreeGroup( 2 );;
gap> a := AutomorphismGroup( f );;
gap> iso := IsomorphismFpGroup( a );;
gap> Range( iso );
<fp group on the generators [ O, P, U ]>


To express an automorphism as word in the generators of the presentation, just apply the isomorphism obtained from IsomorphismFpGroup.

gap> aut := GroupHomomorphismByImages( f, f,
>              GeneratorsOfGroup( f ), [ f.1^f.2, f.1*f.2 ] );
[ f1, f2 ] -> [ f2^-1*f1*f2, f1*f2 ]
gap> ImageElm( iso, aut );
O^2*U*O*P^-1*U


It is also possible to use aut^iso or Image( iso, aut ). Using Image will perform additional checks on the arguments.

The FGA package provides a simpler way to create endomorphisms:

##### 2.4-3 FreeGroupEndomorphismByImages
 ‣ FreeGroupEndomorphismByImages( g, imgs ) ( function )

returns the endomorphism that maps the free generators of the finitely generated subgroup g of a free group to the elements listed in imgs. You may then apply IsBijective to check whether it is an automorphism.

The following functions return automorphisms that correspond to the generators in the presentation:

##### 2.4-4 FreeGroupAutomorphismsGeneratorO
 ‣ FreeGroupAutomorphismsGeneratorO( group ) ( function )
 ‣ FreeGroupAutomorphismsGeneratorP( group ) ( function )
 ‣ FreeGroupAutomorphismsGeneratorU( group ) ( function )
 ‣ FreeGroupAutomorphismsGeneratorS( group ) ( function )
 ‣ FreeGroupAutomorphismsGeneratorT( group ) ( function )
 ‣ FreeGroupAutomorphismsGeneratorQ( group ) ( function )
 ‣ FreeGroupAutomorphismsGeneratorR( group ) ( function )

return the automorphism which maps the free generators [$$x_1, x_2, \dots, x_n$$] of group to

O:

[$$x_1^{-1}, x_2, \dots, x_n$$] ($$n\ge1$$)

P:

[$$x_2, x_1, x_3, \dots, x_n$$] ($$n\ge2$$)

U:

[$$x_1x_2, x_2, x_3, \dots, x_n$$] ($$n\ge2$$)

S:

[$$x_2^{-1}, x_3^{-1}, \dots, x_n^{-1}, x_1^{-1}$$] ($$n\ge1$$)

T:

[$$x_2, x_1^{-1}, x_3, \dots, x_n$$] ($$n\ge2$$)

Q:

[$$x_2, x_3, \dots, x_n, x_1$$] ($$n\ge2$$)

R:

[$$x_2^{-1}, x_1, x_3, x_4, \dots, x_{n-2}, x_nx_{n-1}^{-1}, x_{n-1}^{-1}$$] ($$n\ge4$$)

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