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### 2 Minimal and Canonical Images

Given a group G and action A, the minimal image of an object O is the smallest image of O under any element of G, under the action A.

As a more concrete example, let us consider the minimal image of the set [2,3,5,7] under a group G.

We can calculate all the images of our set under G, then choose the smallest one.

gap> G := Group((1,2,3)(4,5,6)(7,8,9),(1,4,7)(2,5,8)(3,6,9));;
gap> List(G, g -> OnSets([2,3,5,7], g) );
[ [ 2, 3, 5, 7 ], [ 1, 2, 4, 9 ], [ 1, 3, 6, 8 ], [ 2, 4, 8, 9 ],
[ 1, 6, 7, 8 ], [ 3, 5, 7, 9 ], [ 1, 5, 6, 8 ], [ 3, 4, 5, 7 ],
[ 2, 4, 6, 9 ] ]
gap> Minimum(List(G, g -> OnSets([2,3,5,7], g) ) );
[ 1, 2, 4, 9 ]


This is very inefficient, as it requires enumerating all members of G. The images package produces a function MinimalImage, which performs this same operation more efficiently.

gap> LoadPackage("images", false);
true
gap> MinimalImage(G, [2,3,5,7], OnSets);
[ 1, 2, 4, 9 ]


The most common use of MinimalImage is to categorise objects into equivalence classes. This next example shows [2,3,5,7] and [1,6,7,8] are in the same orbit, while [3,5,7,8] is in a different orbit.

gap> MinimalImage(G, [2,3,5,7], OnSets);
[ 1, 2, 4, 9 ]
gap> MinimalImage(G, [1,6,7,8], OnSets);
[ 1, 2, 4, 9 ]
gap> MinimalImage(G, [3,5,7,8], OnSets);
[ 1, 2, 6, 8 ]


In this situation, we do not really need the minimal image, just a method of telling if two sets are in the same equivalence class.

Motivated by this, this package provides CanonicalImage. CanonicalImage(G,O,A) returns some image of O by an element of G under the action A, guaranteeing that if two objects O1 and O2 are in the same orbit of G then CanonicalImage(G,O1,A) = CanonicalImage(G,O2,A). However, the canonical image is not "minimal" under any sensible ordering. The advantage of CanonicalImage is that it is much faster than MinimalImage, often by orders of magnitude.

The value of MinimalImage will remain identical between versions of GAP and the Images package, unless bugs are discovered. This is NOT true for CanonicalImage.

#### 2.1 Function documentation

##### 2.1-1 MinimalImage
 ‣ MinimalImage( G, pnt[, act][, Config] ) ( function )
 ‣ IsMinimalImage( G, pnt[, act][, Config] ) ( function )
 ‣ MinimalImagePerm( G, pnt[, act][, Config] ) ( function )

MinimalImage returns the minimal image of pnt under the group G. IsMinimalImage returns a boolean which is true if MinimalImage would return pnt (so the value is it's own minimal image).

MinimalImagePerm returns the permutation which maps pnt to its minimal image.

The option Config defines a number of advanced configuration   options, which are described in 'ImagesAdvancedConfig'.

##### 2.1-2 IsMinimalImageLessThan
 ‣ IsMinimalImageLessThan( G, A, B[, act][, config] ) ( function )

IsMinimalImageLessThan checks if the minimal image of A under the group G is smaller than B.

It returns MinImage.Smaller, MinImage.Equal or MinImage.Larger, if the minimal image of A is smaller, equal or larger than B.

The option Config defines a number of advanced configuration   options, which are described in 'ImagesAdvancedConfig'.

##### 2.1-3 CanonicalImage
 ‣ CanonicalImage( G[, pnt][, act][, Config] ) ( function )
 ‣ IsCanonicalImage( G[, pnt][, act][, Config] ) ( function )
 ‣ CanonicalImagePerm( G[, pnt][, act][, Config] ) ( function )

CanonicalImage returns a canonical image of pnt under the group G. IsCanonicalImage returns a boolean which is true if CanonicalImage would return pnt (so the value is it's own minimal image).

CanonicalImagePerm returns the permutation which maps pnt to its minimal image.

By default, these functions use the fastest algorithm for calculating canonical images, which is often changed in new versions of the package. The option Config defines a number of advanced configuration   options, which are described in 'ImagesAdvancedConfig'. These include the ability to choose the canonicalising algorithm used.

 ‣ ImagesAdvancedConfig ( global variable )

This section describes the advanced configuration options for both MinimalImage (2.1-1) and CanonicalImage (2.1-3). Assume we have called MinimalImage (2.1-1) or CanonicalImage (2.1-3) with arguments (G,O,A).

order

The search ordering used while building the image. There are many configuration options available. We shall list here just the three most useful ones. A full list is in the paper "Minimal and Canonical Images" by the authors of this package.

CanonicalConfig_Minimum

Lexicographically smallest set -- same as using MinimalImage.

CanonicalConfig_FixedMinOrbit

Lexicographically smallest set under the ordering of the integers given by the MinOrbitPerm function.

CanonicalConfig_RareRatioOrbitFixPlusMin

The current best algorithm (default)

stabilizer

The group Stabilizer(G,O,A), or a subgroup of this group; see Stabilizer (Reference: Stabilizer). If this group is large, it is more efficient to pre-calculate it. Default behaviour is to calculate the group, pass Group(()) to disable this behaviour. This is not checked, and passing an incorrect group will produce incorrect answers.

disableStabilizerCheck (default false)

By default, during search we perform cheap checks to try to find extra elements of the stabilizer. Pass true to disable this check, this will make the algorithm MUCH slower if the stabilizer argument is a subgroup.

getStab (default false)

Return the calculated value of Stabilizer(G,O,A). This may return a subgroup rather than the whole stabilizer.

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