6 Solvable Subgroups of Maximal Order in Sporadic Simple Groups

Date: May 14th, 2012

We determine the orders of solvable subgroups of maximal orders in sporadic simple groups and their automorphism groups, using the information in the **Atlas** of Finite Groups [CCN+85] and the **GAP** system [GAP21], in particular its Character Table Library [Bre24] and its library of Tables of Marks [MNP19].

We also determine the conjugacy classes of these solvable subgroups in the big group, and the maximal overgroups.

A first version of this document, which was based on **GAP** 4.4.10, had been accessible in the web since August 2006. The differences to the current version are as follows.

The format of the

**GAP**output was adjusted to the changed behaviour of**GAP**4.5.The (too wide) table of results was split into two tables, the first one lists the orders and indices of the subgroups, the second one lists the structure of subgroups and the maximal overgroups.

The distribution of the solvable subgroups of maximal orders in the Baby Monster group and the Monster group to conjugacy classes is now proved.

The sporadic simple Monster group has exactly one class of maximal subgroups of the type PSL(2, 41) (see [NW13]), and has no maximal subgroups which have the socle PSL(2, 27) (see [Wil10]). This does not affect the arguments in Section 6.4-14, but some statements in this section had to be corrected.

The tables I and II list information about solvable subgroups of maximal order in sporadic simple groups and their automorphism groups. The first column in each table gives the names of the almost simple groups G, in alphabetical order. The remaining columns of Table I contain the order and the index of a solvable subgroup S of maximal order in G, the value log_|G|(|S|), and the page number in the **Atlas** [CCN+85] where the information about maximal subgroups of G is listed. The second and third columns of Table II show a structure description of S and the structures of the maximal subgroups that contain S; the value "S" in the third column means that S is itself maximal in G. The fourth and fifth columns list the pages in the **Atlas** with the information about the maximal subgroups of G and the section in this note with the proof of the table row, respectively. In the fourth column, page numbers in brackets refer to the **Atlas** pages with information about the maximal subgroups of nonsolvable quotients of the maximal subgroups of G listed in the third column.

Note that in the case of nonmaximal subgroups S, we do not claim to describe the *module* structure of S in the third column of the table; we have kept the **Atlas** description of the normal subgroups of the maximal overgroups of S. For example, the subgroup S listed for Co_2 is contained in maximal subgroups of the types 2^1+8_+:S_6(2) and 2^4+10(S_4 × S_3), so S has normal subgroups of the orders 2, 2^4, 2^9, 2^14, and 2^16; more **Atlas** conformal notations would be 2^[14](S_4 × S_3) or 2^[16](S_3 × S_3).

As a corollary (see Section 6.5), we read off the following.

Corollary:

Exactly the following almost simple groups G with sporadic simple socle contain a solvable subgroup S with the property |S|^2 ≥ |G|.

Fi_23, J_2, J_2.2, M_11, M_12, M_22.2.

The existence of the subgroups S of G with the structure and the order stated in Table I and II follows from the **Atlas**: It is obvious in the cases where S is maximal in G, and in the other cases, the **Atlas** information about a nonsolvable factor group of a maximal subgroup of G suffices.

In order to show that the table rows for the group G are correct, we have to show the following.

G does not contain solvable subgroups of order larger than |S|.

G contain exactly the conjugacy classes of solvable subgroups of order |S| that are listed in the second column of Table II.

S is contained exactly in the maximal subgroups listed in the third column of Table II.

*Remark:*

Each of the groups M_12 and He contains two classes of isomorphic solvable subgroups of maximal order.

Each of the groups Ru, Th, and M contains two classes of nonisomorphic solvable subgroups of maximal order.

The solvable subgroups of maximal order in McL.2 have the structure 3^1+4_+:4S_4, the subgroups are maximal in the maximal subgroups of the structures 3^1+4_+:4S_5 and U_4(3).2_3 in McL.2. Note that the

**Atlas**claims another structure for these maximal subgroups of U_4(3).2_3, see [CCN+85, p. 52].The solvable subgroups of maximal order in Co_3 are the normalizers of Sylow 3-subgroups of Co_3.

G | |S| | |G/S| | log_|G|(|S|) | p. | |

M_11 | 144 | 55 | 0.5536 | 18 | |

M_12 | 432 | 220 | 0.5294 | 33 | |

M_12.2 | 432 | 440 | 0.4992 | 33 | |

J_1 | 168 | 1045 | 0.4243 | 36 | |

M_22 | 576 | 770 | 0.4888 | 39 | |

M_22.2 | 1152 | 770 | 0.5147 | 39 | |

J_2 | 1152 | 525 | 0.5295 | 42 | |

J_2.2 | 2304 | 525 | 0.5527 | 42 | |

M_23 | 1152 | 8855 | 0.4368 | 71 | |

HS | 2000 | 22176 | 0.4316 | 80 | |

HS.2 | 4000 | 22176 | 0.4532 | 80 | |

J_3 | 1944 | 25840 | 0.4270 | 82 | |

J_3.2 | 3888 | 25840 | 0.4486 | 82 | |

M_24 | 13824 | 17710 | 0.4935 | 96 | |

McL | 11664 | 77000 | 0.4542 | 100 | |

McL.2 | 23328 | 77000 | 0.4719 | 100 | |

He | 13824 | 291550 | 0.4310 | 104 | |

He.2 | 18432 | 437325 | 0.4305 | 104 | |

Ru | 49152 | 2968875 | 0.4202 | 126 | |

Suz | 139968 | 3203200 | 0.4416 | 131 | |

Suz.2 | 279936 | 3203200 | 0.4557 | 131 | |

O'N | 25920 | 17778376 | 0.3784 | 132 | |

O'N.2 | 51840 | 17778376 | 0.3940 | 132 | |

Co_3 | 69984 | 7084000 | 0.4142 | 134 | |

Co_2 | 2359296 | 17931375 | 0.4676 | 154 | |

Fi_22 | 5038848 | 12812800 | 0.4853 | 163 | |

Fi_22.2 | 10077696 | 12812800 | 0.4963 | 163 | |

HN | 2000000 | 136515456 | 0.4364 | 166 | |

HN.2 | 4000000 | 136515456 | 0.4479 | 166 | |

Ly | 900000 | 57516865560 | 0.3562 | 174 | |

Th | 944784 | 96049408000 | 0.3523 | 177 | |

Fi_23 | 3265173504 | 1252451200 | 0.5111 | 177 | |

Co_1 | 84934656 | 48952653750 | 0.4258 | 183 | |

J_4 | 28311552 | 3065023459190 | 0.3737 | 190 | |

Fi_24' | 29386561536 | 42713595724800 | 0.4343 | 207 | |

Fi_24'.2 | 58773123072 | 42713595724800 | 0.4413 | 207 | |

B | 29686813949952 | 139953768303693093750 | 0.4007 | 217 | |

M | 2849934139195392 | 283521437805098363752 | |||

344287234566406250 | 0.2866 | 234 |

G | S | Max. overgroups | [CCN+85] | see | |

M_11 | 3^2:Q_8.2 | S | 18 | 6.3 | |

M_12 | 3^2:2S_4 | S | 33 | 6.3 | |

3^2:2S_4 | S | 33 | 6.3 | ||

M_12.2 | 3^2:2S_4 | M_12 | 33 | 6.3 | |

J_1 | 2^3:7:3 | S | 36 | 6.3 | |

M_22 | 2^4:3^2:4 | 2^4:A_6 | 39 | (4) | 6.3 |

M_22.2 | 2^4:3^2:D_8 | 2^4:S_6 | 39 | (4) | 6.3 |

J_2 | 2^2+4:(3 × S_3) | S | 42 | 6.3 | |

J_2.2 | 2^2+4:(S_3 × S_3) | S | 42 | 6.3 | |

M_23 | 2^4:(3 × A_4):2 | 2^4:(3 × A_5):2, | 71 | (2) | 6.3 |

2^4:A_7 | (10) | ||||

HS | 5^1+2_+:8:2 | U_3(5).2 | 80 | (34) | 6.3 |

U_3(5).2 | 6.3 | ||||

HS.2 | 5^1+2_+:[2^5] | S | 80 | (34) | 6.3 |

J_3 | 3^2.3^1+2_+:8 | S | 82 | 6.3 | |

J_3.2 | 3^2.3^1+2_+:QD_16 | S | 82 | 6.3 | |

M_24 | 2^6:3^1+2_+:D_8 | 2^6:3.S_6 | 96 | (4) | 6.3 |

McL | 3^1+4_+:2S_4 | 3^1+4_+:2S_5, | 100 | (2) | 6.3 |

U_4(3) | (52) | 6.3 | |||

McL.2 | 3^1+4_+:4S_4 | 3^1+4_+:4S_5, | 100 | (2) | 6.3 |

U_4(3).2_3 | (52) | 6.3 | |||

He | 2^6:3^1+2_+:D_8 | 2^6:3.S_6 | 104 | (4) | 6.3 |

2^6:3^1+2_+:D_8 | 2^6:3.S_6 | (4) | 6.3 | ||

He.2 | 2^4+4.(S_3 × S_3).2 | S | 104 | 6.3 | |

Ru | 2.2^4+6:S_4 | 2^3+8:L_3(2), | 126 | (3) | 6.4-1 |

2.2^4+6:S_5 | (2) | ||||

2^3+8:S_4 | 2^3+8:L_3(2), | (3) | 6.4-1 | ||

Suz | 3^2+4:2(A_4 × 2^2).2 | S | 131 | 6.4-2 | |

Suz.2 | 3^2+4:2(S_4 × D_8) | S | 131 | 6.4-2 | |

O'N | 3^4:2^1+4_-D_10 | S | 132 | 6.4-3 | |

O'N.2 | 3^4:2^1+4_-.(5:4) | S | 132 | 6.4-3 | |

Co_3 | 3^1+4_+:4.3^2:D_8 | 3^1+4_+:4S_6 | 134 | (4) | 6.3 |

3^5:(2 × M_11) | (18) | ||||

Co_2 | 2^4+10(S_4 × S_3) | 2^1+8_+:S_6(2), | 154 | (46) | 6.4-4 |

2^4+10(S_5 × S_3) | (2) | ||||

Fi_22 | 3^1+6_+:2^3+4:3^2:2 | S | 163 | 6.4-5 | |

Fi_22.2 | 3^1+6_+:2^3+4:(S_3 × S_3) | S | 163 | 6.4-5 | |

HN | 5^1+4_+:2^1+4_-.5.4 | S | 166 | 6.4-6 | |

HN.2 | 5^1+4_+:(4 Y 2^1+4_-.5.4) | S | 166 | 6.4-6 | |

Ly | 5^1+4_+:4.3^2:D_8 | 5^1+4_+:4S_6 | 174 | (4) | 6.4-7 |

Th | [3^9].2S_4 | S | 177 | 6.4-8 | |

3^2.[3^7].2S_4 | S | ||||

Fi_23 | 3^1+8_+.2^1+6_-.3^1+2_+.2S_4 | S | 177 | 6.4-9 | |

Co_1 | 2^4+12.(S_3 × 3^1+2_+:D_8) | 2^4+12.(S_3 × 3S_6) | 183 | 6.4-10 |

G | S | Max. overgroups | [CCN+85] | see | |

J_4 | 2^11:2^6:3^1+2_+:D_8 | 2^11:M_24, | 190 | (96) | 6.4-11 |

2^1+12_+.3M_22:2 | (39) | ||||

Fi_24' | 3^1+10_+:2^1+6_-:3^1+2_+:2S_4 | 3^1+10_+:U_5(2):2 | 207 | (73) | 6.4-12 |

Fi_24'.2 | 3^1+10_+:(2 × 2^1+6_-:3^1+2_+:2S_4) | 3^1+10_+:(2 × U_5(2):2) | 207 | (73) | 6.4-12 |

B | 2^2+10+20(2^4:3^2:D_8 × S_3) | 2^2+10+20(M_22:2 × S_3), | 217 | (39) | 6.4-13 |

2^9+16S_8(2) | (123) | ||||

M | 2^1+2+6+12+18.(S_4 × 3^1+2_+:D_8) | 2^[39].(L_3(2) × 3S_6), | 234 | (3, 4) | 6.4-14 |

2^1+24_+.Co_1 | (183) | ||||

2^2+1+6+12+18.(S_4 × 3^1+2_+:D_8) | 2^[39].(L_3(2) × 3S_6), | (3, 4) | 6.4-14 | ||

2^2+11+22.(M_24 × S_3) | (96) |

We combine the information in the **Atlas** [CCN+85] with explicit computations using the **GAP** system [GAP21], in particular its Character Table Library [Bre24] and its library of Tables of Marks [MNP19]. First we load these two packages.

gap> LoadPackage( "CTblLib", "1.2", false ); true gap> LoadPackage( "TomLib", false ); true

The orders of solvable subgroups of maximal order will be collected in a global record `MaxSolv`

.

gap> MaxSolv:= rec();;

If the **GAP** library of Tables of Marks [MNP19] contains the table of marks of a group G then we can easily inspect all conjugacy classes of subgroups of G. The following small **GAP** function can be used for that. It returns `false`

if the table of marks of the group with the name `name`

is not available, and the list `[ name, n, super ]`

otherwise, where `n`

is the maximal order of solvable subgroups of G, and `super`

is a list of lists; for each conjugacy class of solvable subgroups S of order `n`

, `super`

contains the list of orders of representatives M of the classes of maximal subgroups of G such that M contains a conjugate of S.

Note that a subgroup in the i-th class of a table of marks contains a subgroup in the j-th class if and only if the entry in the position (i,j) of the table of marks is nonzero. For tables of marks objects in **GAP**, this is the case if and only if j is contained in the i-th row of the list that is stored as the value of the attribute `SubsTom`

of the table of marks object; for this test, one need not unpack the matrix of marks.

gap> MaximalSolvableSubgroupInfoFromTom:= function( name ) > local tom, # table of marks for `name' > n, # maximal order of a solvable subgroup > maxsubs, # numbers of the classes of subgroups of order `n' > orders, # list of orders of the classes of subgroups > i, # loop over the classes of subgroups > maxes, # list of positions of the classes of max. subgroups > subs, # `SubsTom' value > cont; # list of list of positions of max. subgroups > > tom:= TableOfMarks( name ); > if tom = fail then > return false; > fi; > n:= 1; > maxsubs:= []; > orders:= OrdersTom( tom ); > for i in [ 1 .. Length( orders ) ] do > if IsSolvableTom( tom, i ) then > if orders[i] = n then > Add( maxsubs, i ); > elif orders[i] > n then > n:= orders[i]; > maxsubs:= [ i ]; > fi; > fi; > od; > maxes:= MaximalSubgroupsTom( tom )[1]; > subs:= SubsTom( tom ); > cont:= List( maxsubs, j -> Filtered( maxes, i -> j in subs[i] ) ); > > return [ name, n, List( cont, l -> orders{ l } ) ]; > end;;

The **GAP** Character Table Library contains the character tables of all maximal subgroups of sporadic simple groups, except for the Monster group. This information can be used as follows.

We start, for a sporadic simple group G, with a known solvable subgroup of order n, say, in G. In order to show that G contains no solvable subgroup of larger order, it suffices to show that no maximal subgroup of G contains a larger solvable subgroup.

The point is that usually the orders of the maximal subgroups of G are not much larger than n, and that a maximal subgroup M contains a solvable subgroup of order n only if the factor group of M by its largest solvable normal subgroup N contains a solvable subgroup of order n/|N|. This reduces the question to relatively small groups.

What we can check *automatically* from the character table of M/N is whether M/N can contain subgroups (solvable or not) of indices between five and |M|/n, by computing possible permutation characters of these degrees. (Note that a solvable subgroup of a nonsolvable group has index at least five. This lower bound could be improved for example by considering the smallest degree of a nontrivial character, but this is not an issue here.)

Then we are left with a –hopefully short– list of maximal subgroups of G, together with upper bounds on the indices of possible solvable subgroups; excluding these possibilities then yields that the initially chosen solvable subgroup of G is indeed the largest one.

The following **GAP** function can be used to compute this information for the character table `tblM`

of M and a given order `minorder`

. It returns `false`

if M cannot contain a solvable subgroup of order at least `minorder`

, otherwise a list `[ tblM, m, k ]`

where `m`

is the maximal index of a subgroup that has order at least `minorder`

, and `k`

is the minimal index of a possible subgroup of M (a proper subgroup if M is nonsolvable), according to the **GAP** function `PermChars`

(Reference: PermChars).

gap> SolvableSubgroupInfoFromCharacterTable:= function( tblM, minorder ) > local maxindex, # index of subgroups of order `minorder' > N, # class positions describing a solvable normal subgroup > fact, # character table of the factor by `N' > classes, # class sizes in `fact' > nsg, # list of class positions of normal subgroups > i; # loop over the possible indices > > maxindex:= Int( Size( tblM ) / minorder ); > if maxindex = 0 then > return false; > elif IsSolvableCharacterTable( tblM ) then > return [ tblM, maxindex, 1 ]; > elif maxindex < 5 then > return false; > fi; > > N:= [ 1 ]; > fact:= tblM; > repeat > fact:= fact / N; > classes:= SizesConjugacyClasses( fact ); > nsg:= Difference( ClassPositionsOfNormalSubgroups( fact ), [ [ 1 ] ] ); > N:= First( nsg, x -> IsPrimePowerInt( Sum( classes{ x } ) ) ); > until N = fail; > > for i in Filtered( DivisorsInt( Size( fact ) ), > d -> 5 <= d and d <= maxindex ) do > if Length( PermChars( fact, rec( torso:= [ i ] ) ) ) > 0 then > return [ tblM, maxindex, i ]; > fi; > od; > > return false; > end;;

For twelve sporadic simple groups, the **GAP** library of Tables of Marks knows the tables of marks, so we can use `MaximalSolvableSubgroupInfoFromTom`

.

gap> solvinfo:= Filtered( List( > AllCharacterTableNames( IsSporadicSimple, true, > IsDuplicateTable, false ), > MaximalSolvableSubgroupInfoFromTom ), x -> x <> false );; gap> for entry in solvinfo do > MaxSolv.( entry[1] ):= entry[2]; > od; gap> for entry in solvinfo do > Print( String( entry[1], 5 ), String( entry[2], 7 ), > String( entry[3], 28 ), "\n" ); > od; Co3 69984 [ [ 3849120, 699840 ] ] HS 2000 [ [ 252000, 252000 ] ] He 13824 [ [ 138240 ], [ 138240 ] ] J1 168 [ [ 168 ] ] J2 1152 [ [ 1152 ] ] J3 1944 [ [ 1944 ] ] M11 144 [ [ 144 ] ] M12 432 [ [ 432 ], [ 432 ] ] M22 576 [ [ 5760 ] ] M23 1152 [ [ 40320, 5760 ] ] M24 13824 [ [ 138240 ] ] McL 11664 [ [ 3265920, 58320 ] ]

We see that for J_1, J_2, J_3, M_11, and M_12, the subgroup S is maximal. For M_12 and He, there are two classes of subgroups S. For the other groups, the class of subgroups S is unique, and there are one or two classes of maximal subgroups of G that contain S. From the shown orders of these maximal subgroups, their structures can be read off from the **Atlas**, on the pages listed in Table II.

Similarly, the **Atlas** tells us about the extensions of the subgroups S in Aut(G). In particular,

the order 2000 subgroups of HS are contained in maximal subgroups of the type U_3(5).2 (two classes) which do not extend to HS.2, but there are novelties of the type 5^1+2_+:[2^5] and of the order 4000, so the solvable subgroups of maximal order in HS do in fact extend to HS.2.

the order 13824 subgroups of He are contained in maximal subgroups of the type 2^6:3S_6 (two classes) which do not extend to He.2, but there are novelties of the type 2^4+4.(S_3 × S_3).2 and of the order 18432. (So the solvable subgroups S of maximal order in He do not extend to He.2 but there are larger solvable subgroups in He.2.)

We inspect the maximal subgroups of He.2 in order to show that these are in fact the solvable subgroups of maximal order (see [CCN+85, p. 104]): Any other solvable subgroup of order at least n in He.2 must be contained in a subgroup of one of the types S_4(4).4 (of index at most 212), 2^2.L_3(4).D_12 (of index at most 52), or 2^1+6_+.L_3(2).2 (of index at most 2). By [CCN+85, pp. 44, 23, 3], this is not the case.

the maximal subgroups of order 1152 in J_2 extend to subgroups of order 2304 in J_2.2.

the maximal subgroups of order 1944 in J_3 extend to subgroups of the type 3^2.3^1+2_+:8.2 and of order 3888 in J_3.2. (The structure stated in [CCN+85, p. 82] is not correct, see [BN95].)

the maximal subgroups of order 432 in M_12 (two classes) do

*not*extend in M_12.2, and we see from the table of marks of M_12.2 that there are no larger solvable subgroups in this group, i. e., the solvable subgroups of maximal order in M_12.2 lie in M_12.the order 576 subgroups of M_22 are contained in maximal subgroups of the type 2^4:A_6 which extend to subgroups of the type 2^4:S_6 in M_22.2, so the solvable subgroups of maximal order in M_22.2 have the type 2^4:3^2:D_8 and the order 1152. In fact the structure is S_4 ≀ S_2.

the order 11664 subgroups of McL are contained in maximal subgroups of the type 3^1+4_+:2S_5 which extend to subgroups of the type 3^1+4:4S_5 in McL.2, so the solvable subgroups of maximal order in McL.2 have the type 3^1+4:4S_4 and the order 23328.

gap> MaxSolv.( "HS.2" ):= 2 * MaxSolv.( "HS" );; gap> n:= 2^(4+4) * ( 6 * 6 ) * 2; MaxSolv.( "He.2" ):= n;; 18432 gap> List( [ Size( CharacterTable( "S4(4).4" ) ), > Factorial( 5 )^2 * 2, > Size( CharacterTable( "2^2.L3(4).D12" ) ), > 2^7 * Size( CharacterTable( "L3(2)" ) ) * 2, > 7^2 * 2 * Size( CharacterTable( "L2(7)" ) ) * 2, > 3 * Factorial( 7 ) * 2 ], i -> Int( i / n ) ); [ 212, 1, 52, 2, 1, 1 ] gap> MaxSolv.( "J2.2" ):= 2 * MaxSolv.( "J2" );; gap> MaxSolv.( "J3.2" ):= 2 * MaxSolv.( "J3" );; gap> info:= MaximalSolvableSubgroupInfoFromTom( "M12.2" ); [ "M12.2", 432, [ [ 95040 ] ] ] gap> MaxSolv.( "M12.2" ):= info[2];; gap> MaxSolv.( "M22.2" ):= 2 * MaxSolv.( "M22" );; gap> MaxSolv.( "McL.2" ):= 2 * MaxSolv.( "McL" );;

We use the **GAP** function `SolvableSubgroupInfoFromCharacterTable`

, and individual arguments. In several cases, information about smaller sporadic simple groups is needed, so we deal with the groups in increasing order.

The group Ru contains exactly two conjugacy classes of nonisomorphic solvable subgroups of order n = 49152, and no larger solvable subgroups.

gap> t:= CharacterTable( "Ru" );; gap> mx:= List( Maxes( t ), CharacterTable );; gap> n:= 49152;; gap> info:= List( mx, x -> SolvableSubgroupInfoFromCharacterTable( x, n ) );; gap> info:= Filtered( info, IsList ); [ [ CharacterTable( "2^3+8:L3(2)" ), 7, 7 ], [ CharacterTable( "2.2^4+6:S5" ), 5, 5 ] ]

The maximal subgroups of the structure 2.2^4+6:S_5 in Ru contain one class of solvable subgroups of order n and with the structure 2.2^4+6:S_4, see [CCN+85, p. 126, p. 2].

The maximal subgroups of the structure 2^3+8:L_3(2) in Ru contain two classes of solvable subgroups of order n and with the structure 2^3+8:S_4, see [CCN+85, p. 126, p. 3]. These groups are the stabilizers of vectors and two-dimensional subspaces, respectively, in the three-dimensional submodule; note that each 2^3+8:L_3(2) type subgroup H of Ru is the normalizer of an elementary abelian group of order eight all of whose involutions are in the Ru-class `2A`

and are conjugate in H. Since the 2.2^4+6:S_5 type subgroups of Ru are the normalizers of `2A`

-elements in Ru, the groups in one of the two classes in question coincide with the largest solvable subgroups in the 2.2^4+6:S_5 type subgroups. The groups in the other class do not centralize a `2A`

-element in Ru and are therefore not isomorphic with the 2.2^4+6:S_4 type groups.

gap> MaxSolv.( "Ru" ):= n;; gap> s:= info[1][1];; gap> cls:= SizesConjugacyClasses( s );; gap> nsg:= Filtered( ClassPositionsOfNormalSubgroups( s ), > x -> Sum( cls{ x } ) = 2^3 ); [ [ 1, 2 ] ] gap> cls{ nsg[1] }; [ 1, 7 ] gap> GetFusionMap( s, t ){ nsg[1] }; [ 1, 2 ]

The group Suz contains a unique conjugacy class of solvable subgroups of order n = 139968, and no larger solvable subgroups.

gap> t:= CharacterTable( "Suz" );; gap> mx:= List( Maxes( t ), CharacterTable );; gap> n:= 139968;; gap> info:= List( mx, x -> SolvableSubgroupInfoFromCharacterTable( x, n ) );; gap> info:= Filtered( info, IsList ); [ [ CharacterTable( "G2(4)" ), 1797, 416 ], [ CharacterTable( "3_2.U4(3).2_3'" ), 140, 72 ], [ CharacterTable( "3^5:M11" ), 13, 11 ], [ CharacterTable( "2^4+6:3a6" ), 7, 6 ], [ CharacterTable( "3^2+4:2(2^2xa4)2" ), 1, 1 ] ]

The maximal subgroups S of the structure 3^2+4:2(A_4 × 2^2).2 in Suz are solvable and have order n, see [CCN+85, p. 131].

In order to show that Suz contains no other solvable subgroups of order larger than or equal to |S|, we check that there are no solvable subgroups in G_2(4) of index at most 1797 (see [CCN+85, p. 97]), in U_4(3).2_3^' of index at most 140 (see [CCN+85, p. 52]), in M_11 of index at most 13 (see [CCN+85, p. 18]), and in A_6 of index at most 7 (see [CCN+85, p. 4]).

The group S extends to a group of the structure 3^2+4:2(S_4 × D_8) in the automorphism group Suz.2.

gap> MaxSolv.( "Suz" ):= n;; gap> MaxSolv.( "Suz.2" ):= 2 * n;;

The group ON contains a unique conjugacy class of solvable subgroups of order 25920, and no larger solvable subgroups.

gap> t:= CharacterTable( "ON" );; gap> mx:= List( Maxes( t ), CharacterTable );; gap> n:= 25920;; gap> info:= List( mx, x -> SolvableSubgroupInfoFromCharacterTable( x, n ) );; gap> info:= Filtered( info, IsList ); [ [ CharacterTable( "L3(7).2" ), 144, 114 ], [ CharacterTable( "ONM2" ), 144, 114 ], [ CharacterTable( "3^4:2^(1+4)D10" ), 1, 1 ] ]

The maximal subgroups S of the structure 3^4:2^1+4_-D_10 in ON are solvable and have order n, see [CCN+85, pp. 132].

In order to show that ON contains no other solvable subgroups of order larger than or equal to |S|, we check that there are no solvable subgroups in L_3(7).2 of index at most 144 (see [CCN+85, p. 50]); note that the groups in the second class of maximal subgroups of ON are isomorphic with L_3(7).2.

The group S extends to a group of order |S.2| in the automorphism group ON.2.

gap> MaxSolv.( "ON" ):= n;; gap> MaxSolv.( "ON.2" ):= 2 * n;;

The group Co_2 contains a unique conjugacy class of solvable subgroups of order 2359296, and no larger solvable subgroups.

gap> t:= CharacterTable( "Co2" );; gap> mx:= List( Maxes( t ), CharacterTable );; gap> n:= 2359296;; gap> info:= List( mx, x -> SolvableSubgroupInfoFromCharacterTable( x, n ) );; gap> info:= Filtered( info, IsList ); [ [ CharacterTable( "U6(2).2" ), 7796, 672 ], [ CharacterTable( "2^10:m22:2" ), 385, 22 ], [ CharacterTable( "McL" ), 380, 275 ], [ CharacterTable( "2^1+8:s6f2" ), 315, 28 ], [ CharacterTable( "2^1+4+6.a8" ), 17, 8 ], [ CharacterTable( "U4(3).D8" ), 11, 8 ], [ CharacterTable( "2^(4+10)(S5xS3)" ), 5, 5 ] ]

The maximal subgroups of the structure 2^4+10(S_5 × S_3) in Co_2 contain solvable subgroups S of order n and with the structure 2^4+10(S_4 × S_3), see [CCN+85, p. 154].

The subgroups S are contained also in the maximal subgroups of the type 2^1+8_+:S_6(2); note that the 2^1+8_+:S_6(2) type subgroups are described as normalizers of elements in the Co_2-class `2A`

, and S normalizes an elementary abelian group of order 16 containing an S-class of length five that is contained in the Co_2-class `2A`

.

gap> s:= info[7][1]; CharacterTable( "2^(4+10)(S5xS3)" ) gap> cls:= SizesConjugacyClasses( s );; gap> nsg:= Filtered( ClassPositionsOfNormalSubgroups( s ), > x -> Sum( cls{ x } ) = 2^4 ); [ [ 1 .. 3 ] ] gap> cls{ nsg[1] }; [ 1, 5, 10 ] gap> GetFusionMap( s, t ){ nsg[1] }; [ 1, 2, 3 ]

The stabilizers of these involutions in 2^4+10(S_5 × S_3) have index five, they are solvable, and they are contained in 2^1+8_+:S_6(2) type subgroups, so they are Co_2-conjugates of S. (The corresponding subgroups of S_6(2) are maximal and have the type 2.[2^6]:(S_3 × S_3).)

In order to show that G contains no other solvable subgroups of order larger than or equal to |S|, we check that there are no solvable subgroups in U_6(2) of index at most 7796 (see [CCN+85, p. 115]), in M_22.2 of index at most 385 (see [CCN+85, p. 39] or Section 6.3), in McL of index at most 380 (see [CCN+85, p. 100] or Section 6.3), in A_8 of index at most 17 (see [CCN+85, p. 20]), and in U_4(3).D_8 of index at most 11 (see [CCN+85, p. 52]).

gap> MaxSolv.( "Co2" ):= n;;

The group Fi_22 contains a unique conjugacy class of solvable subgroups of order 5038848, and no larger solvable subgroups.

gap> t:= CharacterTable( "Fi22" );; gap> mx:= List( Maxes( t ), CharacterTable );; gap> n:= 5038848;; gap> info:= List( mx, x -> SolvableSubgroupInfoFromCharacterTable( x, n ) );; gap> info:= Filtered( info, IsList ); [ [ CharacterTable( "2.U6(2)" ), 3650, 672 ], [ CharacterTable( "O7(3)" ), 910, 351 ], [ CharacterTable( "Fi22M3" ), 910, 351 ], [ CharacterTable( "O8+(2).3.2" ), 207, 6 ], [ CharacterTable( "2^10:m22" ), 90, 22 ], [ CharacterTable( "3^(1+6):2^(3+4):3^2:2" ), 1, 1 ] ]

The maximal subgroups S of the structure 3^1+6:2^3+4:3^2:2 in Fi_22 are solvable and have order n, see [CCN+85, p. 163].

In order to show that Fi_22 contains no other solvable subgroups of order larger than or equal to |S|, we check that there are no solvable subgroups in U_6(2) of index at most 3650 (see [CCN+85, p. 115]), in O_7(3) of index at most 910 (see [CCN+85, p. 109]), in O_8^+(2).S_3 of index at most 207 (see [CCN+85, p. 85]), and in M_22.2 of index at most 90 (see [CCN+85, p. 39] or Section 6.3); note that the groups in the third class of maximal subgroups of Fi_22 are isomorphic with O_7(3).

The group S extends to a group of order |S.2| in the automorphism group Fi_22.2.

gap> MaxSolv.( "Fi22" ):= n;; gap> MaxSolv.( "Fi22.2" ):= 2 * n;;

The group HN contains a unique conjugacy class of solvable subgroups of order 2000000, and no larger solvable subgroups.

gap> t:= CharacterTable( "HN" );; gap> mx:= List( Maxes( t ), CharacterTable );; gap> n:= 2000000;; gap> info:= List( mx, x -> SolvableSubgroupInfoFromCharacterTable( x, n ) );; gap> info:= Filtered( info, IsList ); [ [ CharacterTable( "A12" ), 119, 12 ], [ CharacterTable( "5^(1+4):2^(1+4).5.4" ), 1, 1 ] ]

The maximal subgroups S of the structure 5^1+4:2^1+4.5.4 in HN are solvable and have order n, see [CCN+85, p. 166].

In order to show that HN contains no other solvable subgroups of order larger than or equal to |S|, we check that there are no solvable subgroups in A_12 of index at most 119 (see [CCN+85, p. 91]).

The group S extends to a group of order |S.2| in the automorphism group HN.2.

gap> MaxSolv.( "HN" ):= n;; gap> MaxSolv.( "HN.2" ):= 2 * n;;

The group Ly contains a unique conjugacy class of solvable subgroups of order 900000, and no larger solvable subgroups.

gap> t:= CharacterTable( "Ly" );; gap> mx:= List( Maxes( t ), CharacterTable );; gap> n:= 900000;; gap> info:= List( mx, x -> SolvableSubgroupInfoFromCharacterTable( x, n ) );; gap> info:= Filtered( info, IsList ); [ [ CharacterTable( "G2(5)" ), 6510, 3906 ], [ CharacterTable( "3.McL.2" ), 5987, 275 ], [ CharacterTable( "5^3.psl(3,5)" ), 51, 31 ], [ CharacterTable( "2.A11" ), 44, 11 ], [ CharacterTable( "5^(1+4):4S6" ), 10, 6 ] ]

The maximal subgroups of the structure 5^(1+4):4S6 in Ly contain solvable subgroups S of order n and with the structure 5^1+4:4.3^2.D_8, see [CCN+85, p. 174].

In order to show that Ly contains no other solvable subgroups of order larger than or equal to |S|, we check that there are no solvable subgroups in G_2(5) of index at most 6510 (see [CCN+85, p. 114]), in McL.2 of index at most 5987 (see [CCN+85, p. 100] or Section 6.3), in L_3(5) of index at most 51 (see [CCN+85, p. 38]), and in A_11 of index at most 44 (see [CCN+85, p. 75]).

gap> MaxSolv.( "Ly" ):= n;;

The group Th contains exactly two conjugacy classes of nonisomorphic solvable subgroups of order n = 944784, and no larger solvable subgroups.

gap> t:= CharacterTable( "Th" );; gap> mx:= List( Maxes( t ), CharacterTable );; gap> n:= 944784;; gap> info:= List( mx, x -> SolvableSubgroupInfoFromCharacterTable( x, n ) );; gap> info:= Filtered( info, IsList ); [ [ CharacterTable( "2^5.psl(5,2)" ), 338, 31 ], [ CharacterTable( "2^1+8.a9" ), 98, 9 ], [ CharacterTable( "U3(8).6" ), 35, 6 ], [ CharacterTable( "ThN3B" ), 1, 1 ], [ CharacterTable( "ThM7" ), 1, 1 ] ]

The maximal subgroups S of the structures [3^9].2S_4 and 3^2.[3^7].2S_4 in Th are solvable and have order n, see [CCN+85, p. 177].

In order to show that Th contains no other solvable subgroups of order larger than or equal to |S|, we check that there are no solvable subgroups in L_5(2) of index at most 338 (see [CCN+85, p. 70]), in A_9 of index at most 98 (see [CCN+85, p. 37]), and in U_3(8).6 of index at most 35 (see [CCN+85, p. 66]).

gap> MaxSolv.( "Th" ):= n;;

The group Fi_23 contains a unique conjugacy class of solvable subgroups of order n = 3265173504, and no larger solvable subgroups.

gap> t:= CharacterTable( "Fi23" );; gap> mx:= List( Maxes( t ), CharacterTable );; gap> n:= 3265173504;; gap> info:= List( mx, x -> SolvableSubgroupInfoFromCharacterTable( x, n ) );; gap> info:= Filtered( info, IsList ); [ [ CharacterTable( "2.Fi22" ), 39545, 3510 ], [ CharacterTable( "O8+(3).3.2" ), 9100, 6 ], [ CharacterTable( "3^(1+8).2^(1+6).3^(1+2).2S4" ), 1, 1 ] ]

The maximal subgroups S of the structure 3^1+8_+.2^1+6_-.3^1+2_+.2S_4 in Fi_23 are solvable and have order n, see [CCN+85, p. 177].

In order to show that Fi_23 contains no other solvable subgroups of order larger than or equal to |S|, we check that there are no solvable subgroups in Fi_22 of index at most 39545 (see Section 6.4-5) and in O_8^+(3).S_3 of index at most 9100 (see [CCN+85, p. 140]).

gap> MaxSolv.( "Fi23" ):= n;;

The group Co_1 contains a unique conjugacy class of solvable subgroups of order n = 84934656, and no larger solvable subgroups.

gap> t:= CharacterTable( "Co1" );; gap> mx:= List( Maxes( t ), CharacterTable );; gap> n:= 84934656;; gap> info:= List( mx, x -> SolvableSubgroupInfoFromCharacterTable( x, n ) );; gap> info:= Filtered( info, IsList ); [ [ CharacterTable( "Co2" ), 498093, 2300 ], [ CharacterTable( "3.Suz.2" ), 31672, 1782 ], [ CharacterTable( "2^11:M24" ), 5903, 24 ], [ CharacterTable( "Co3" ), 5837, 276 ], [ CharacterTable( "2^(1+8)+.O8+(2)" ), 1050, 120 ], [ CharacterTable( "U6(2).3.2" ), 649, 6 ], [ CharacterTable( "2^(2+12):(A8xS3)" ), 23, 8 ], [ CharacterTable( "2^(4+12).(S3x3S6)" ), 10, 6 ] ]

The maximal subgroups of the structure 2^4+12.(S_3 × 3S_6) in Co_1 contain solvable subgroups S of order n and with the structure 2^4+12.(S_3 × 3^1+2_+:D_8), see [CCN+85, p. 183].

In order to show that Co_1 contains no other solvable subgroups of order larger than or equal to |S|, we check that there are no solvable subgroups in Co_2 of index at most 498093 (see Section 6.4-4), in Suz.2 of index at most 31672 (see Section 6.4-2), in M_24 of index at most 5903 (see Section 6.3), in Co_3 of index at most 5837 (see [CCN+85, p. 134] or Section 6.3), in O_8^+(2) of index at most 1050 (see [CCN+85, p. 185]), in U_6(2).S_3 of index at most 649 (see [CCN+85, p. 115]), and in A_8 of index at most 23 (see [CCN+85, p. 22]).

gap> MaxSolv.( "Co1" ):= n;;

The group J_4 contains a unique conjugacy class of solvable subgroups of order 28311552, and no larger solvable subgroups.

gap> t:= CharacterTable( "J4" );; gap> mx:= List( Maxes( t ), CharacterTable );; gap> n:= 28311552;; gap> info:= List( mx, x -> SolvableSubgroupInfoFromCharacterTable( x, n ) );; gap> info:= Filtered( info, IsList ); [ [ CharacterTable( "mx1j4" ), 17710, 24 ], [ CharacterTable( "c2aj4" ), 770, 22 ], [ CharacterTable( "2^10:L5(2)" ), 361, 31 ], [ CharacterTable( "J4M4" ), 23, 5 ] ]

The maximal subgroups of the structure 2^11:M_24 in J_4 contain solvable subgroups S of order n and with the structure 2^11:2^6:3^1+2_+:D_8, see Section 6.3 and [CCN+85, p. 190].

(The subgroups in the first four classes of maximal subgroups of J_4 have the structures 2^11:M_24, 2^1+12_+.3M_22:2, 2^10:L_5(2), and 2^3+12.(S_5 × L_3(2)), in this order.)

The subgroups S are contained also in the maximal subgroups of the type 2^1+12_+.3M_22:2; note that these subgroups are described as normalizers of elements in the J_4-class `2A`

, and S normalizes an elementary abelian group of order 2^11 containing an S-class of length 1771 that is contained in the J_4-class `2A`

.

gap> s:= info[1][1]; CharacterTable( "mx1j4" ) gap> cls:= SizesConjugacyClasses( s );; gap> nsg:= Filtered( ClassPositionsOfNormalSubgroups( s ), > x -> Sum( cls{ x } ) = 2^11 ); [ [ 1 .. 3 ] ] gap> cls{ nsg[1] }; [ 1, 276, 1771 ] gap> GetFusionMap( s, t ){ nsg[1] }; [ 1, 3, 2 ]

The stabilizers of these involutions in 2^11:M_24 have index 1771, they have the structure 2^11:2^6:3.S_6, and they are contained in 2^1+12_+.3M_22:2 type subgroups; so also S, which has index 10 in 2^11:2^6:3.S_6, is contained in 2^1+12_+.3M_22:2. (The corresponding subgroups of M_22:2 are of course the solvable groups of maximal order described in Section 6.3.)

In order to show that G contains no other solvable subgroups of order larger than or equal to |S|, we check that there are no solvable subgroups in L_5(2) of index at most 361 (see [CCN+85, p. 70]) and in S_5 × L_3(2) of index at most 23 (see [CCN+85, pp. 2, 3]).

gap> MaxSolv.( "J4" ):= n;;

The group Fi_24^' contains a unique conjugacy class of solvable subgroups of order 29386561536, and no larger solvable subgroups.

gap> t:= CharacterTable( "Fi24'" );; gap> mx:= List( Maxes( t ), CharacterTable );; gap> n:= 29386561536;; gap> info:= List( mx, x -> SolvableSubgroupInfoFromCharacterTable( x, n ) );; gap> info:= Filtered( info, IsList ); [ [ CharacterTable( "Fi23" ), 139161244, 31671 ], [ CharacterTable( "2.Fi22.2" ), 8787, 3510 ], [ CharacterTable( "(3xO8+(3):3):2" ), 3033, 6 ], [ CharacterTable( "O10-(2)" ), 851, 495 ], [ CharacterTable( "3^(1+10):U5(2):2" ), 165, 165 ], [ CharacterTable( "2^2.U6(2).3.2" ), 7, 6 ] ]

The maximal subgroups of the structure 3^1+10_+:U5(2):2 in Fi_24^' contain solvable subgroups S of order n and with the structure 3^1+10_+:2^1+6_-:3^1+2_+:2S_4, see [CCN+85, p. 73, p. 207].

In order to show that G contains no other solvable subgroups of order larger than or equal to |S|, we check that there are no solvable subgroups in Fi_23 of order at least n (see Section 6.4-9), in Fi_22.2 of order at least n (see Section 6.4-5), in O_8^+(3).S_3 of index at most 3033 (see [CCN+85, p. 140]), in O_10^-(2) of index at most 851 (see [CCN+85, p. 147]), and in U_6(2).S_3 of index at most 7 (see [CCN+85, p. 115]).

The group S extends to a group of order |S.2| in the automorphism group Fi_24.

gap> MaxSolv.( "Fi24'" ):= n;; gap> MaxSolv.( "Fi24'.2" ):= 2 * n;;

The group B contains a unique conjugacy class of solvable subgroups of order n = 29686813949952, and no larger solvable subgroups.

The maximal subgroups of the structure 2^2+10+20(M_22:2 × S_3) in B contain solvable subgroups S of order n and with the structure 2^2+10+20(2^4:3^2:D_8 × S_3), see [CCN+85, p. 217] and Section 6.3.

gap> n:= 29686813949952;; gap> n = 2^(2+10+20) * 2^4 * 3^2 * 8 * 6; true gap> n = 2^(2+10+20) * MaxSolv.( "M22.2" ) * 6; true

By [Wil99, Table 1], the only maximal subgroups of B of order bigger than |S| have the following structures.

2.^2E_6(2).2 | 2^1+22.Co_2 | Fi_23 | 2^9+16S_8(2) |

Th | (2^2 × F_4(2)):2 | 2^2+10+20(M_22:2 × S_3) | 2^5+5+10+10L_5(2) |

S_3 × Fi_22:2 | 2^[35](S_5 × L_3(2)) | HN:2 | O_8^+(3):S_4 |

(The character tables of the maximal subgroups of B are meanwhile available in **GAP**.)

gap> b:= CharacterTable( "B" );; gap> mx:= List( Maxes( b ), CharacterTable );; gap> Filtered( mx, x -> Size( x ) >= n ); [ CharacterTable( "2.2E6(2).2" ), CharacterTable( "2^(1+22).Co2" ), CharacterTable( "Fi23" ), CharacterTable( "2^(9+16).S8(2)" ), CharacterTable( "Th" ), CharacterTable( "(2^2xF4(2)):2" ), CharacterTable( "2^(2+10+20).(M22.2xS3)" ), CharacterTable( "[2^30].L5(2)" ), CharacterTable( "S3xFi22.2" ), CharacterTable( "[2^35].(S5xL3(2))" ), CharacterTable( "HN.2" ), CharacterTable( "O8+(3).S4" ) ]

For the subgroups 2^1+22.Co_2, Fi_23, Th, S_3 × Fi_22:2, and HN:2, the solvable subgroups of maximal order are known from the previous sections or can be derived from known values, and are smaller than n.

gap> List( [ 2^(1+22) * MaxSolv.( "Co2" ), > MaxSolv.( "Fi23" ), > MaxSolv.( "Th" ), > 6 * MaxSolv.( "Fi22.2" ), > MaxSolv.( "HN.2" ) ], i -> Int( i / n ) ); [ 0, 0, 0, 0, 0 ]

If one of the remaining maximal groups U from the above list has a solvable subgroup of order at least n then the index of this subgroup in U is bounded as follows.

gap> List( [ Size( CharacterTable( "2.2E6(2).2" ) ), > 2^(9+16) * Size( CharacterTable( "S8(2)" ) ), > 2^3 * Size( CharacterTable( "F4(2)" ) ), > 2^(2+10+20) * Size( CharacterTable( "M22.2" ) ) * 6, > 2^30 * Size( CharacterTable( "L5(2)" ) ), > 2^35 * Factorial(5) * Size( CharacterTable( "L3(2)" ) ), > Size( CharacterTable( "O8+(3)" ) ) * 24 ], > i -> Int( i / n ) ); [ 10311982931, 53550, 892, 770, 361, 23, 4 ]

The group O_8^+(3):S_4 is nonsolvable, and its order is less than 5 n, thus its solvable subgroups have orders less than n.

The largest solvable subgroup of S_5 × L_3(2) has index 35, thus the solvable subgroups of 2^[35](S_5 × L_3(2)) have orders less than n.

The groups of type 2^5+5+10+10L_5(2) cannot contain solvable subgroups of order at least n because L_5(2) has no solvable subgroup of index up to 361 –such a subgroup would be contained in 2^4:L_4(2), of index at most ⌊ 361/31 ⌋ = 11 (see [CCN+85, p. 70]), and L_4(2) ≅ A_8 does not have such subgroups (see [CCN+85, p. 22]).

The largest proper subgroup of F_4(2) has index 69615 (see [CCN+85, p. 170]), which excludes solvable subgroups of order at least n in (2^2 × F_4(2)):2.

Ruling out the group 2.^2E_6(2).2 is more involved. We consider the list of maximal subgroups of ^2E_6(2) in [CCN+85, p. 191] (which is complete, see [BN95]), and compute the maximal index of a group of order n/4; the possible subgroups of ^2E_6(2) to consider are the following

2^1+20:U_6(2) | 2^8+16:O_8^-(2) | F_4(2) | 2^2.2^9.2^18:(L_3(4) × S_3) |

Fi_22 | O_10^-(2) | 2^3.2^12.2^15:(S_5 × L_3(2)) |

(The order of S_3 × U_6(2) is already smaller than n/4.)

gap> List( [ 2^(1+20) * Size( CharacterTable( "U6(2)" ) ), > 2^(8+16) * Size( CharacterTable( "O8-(2)" ) ), > Size( CharacterTable( "F4(2)" ) ), > 2^(2+9+18) * Size( CharacterTable( "L3(4)" ) ) * 6, > Size( CharacterTable( "Fi22" ) ), > Size( CharacterTable( "O10-(2)" ) ), > 2^(3+12+15) * 120 * Size( CharacterTable( "L3(2)" ) ), > 6 * Size( CharacterTable( "U6(2)" ) ) ], > i -> Int( i / ( n / 4 ) ) ); [ 2598, 446, 446, 8, 8, 3, 2, 0 ]

The indices of the solvable groups of maximal orders in the groups U_6(2), O_8^-(2), F_4(2), L_3(4), and Fi_22 are larger than the bounds we get for n, see [CCN+85, pp. 115, 89, 170, 23, 163].

It remains to consider the subgroups of the type 2^9+16S_8(2). The group S_8(2) contains maximal subgroups of the type 2^3+8:(S_3 × S_6) and of index 5355 (see [CCN+85, p. 123]), which contain solvable subgroups S' of index 10. This yields solvable subgroups of order 2^9+16+3+8 ⋅ 6 ⋅ 72 = n.

gap> 2^(9+16+3+8) * 6 * 72 = n; true

There are no other solvable subgroups of larger or equal order in S_8(2): We would need solvable subgroups of index at most 446 in O_8^-(2):2, 393 in O_8^+(2):2, 210 in S_6(2), or 23 in A_8, which is not the case by [CCN+85, pp. 89, 85, 46, 22].

gap> index:= Int( 2^(9+16) * Size( CharacterTable( "S8(2)" ) ) / n ); 53550 gap> List( [ 120, 136, 255, 2295 ], i -> Int( index / i ) ); [ 446, 393, 210, 23 ] gap> MaxSolv.( "B" ):= n;;

So the 2^9+16S_8(2) type subgroups of B yield solvable subgroups S' of the type 2^9+16.2^3+8:(S_3 × 3^2:D_8), and of order n.

We want to show that S' is a B-conjugate of S. For that, we first show the following:

Lemma:

The group B contains exactly two conjugacy classes of Klein four groups whose involutions lie in the class `2B`

. (We will call these Klein four groups `2B`

-pure.) Their normalizers in B have the orders 22858846741463040 and 292229574819840, respectively.

*Proof.* Let V be a `2B`

-pure Klein four group in B, and set N = N_B(V). Let x ∈ V be an involution and set H = C_B(x), then H is maximal in B and has the structure 2^1+22.Co_2. The index of C = C_B(V) = C_H(V) in N divides 6, and C stabilizes the central involution in H and another `2B`

involution. The group H contains exactly four conjugacy classes of `2B`

elements.

gap> h:= mx[2]; CharacterTable( "2^(1+22).Co2" ) gap> pos:= Positions( GetFusionMap( h, b ), 3 ); [ 2, 4, 11, 20 ]

The B-classes of `2B`

-pure Klein four groups arise from those of these classes y^H ⊂ H such that x ≠ y holds and x y is a `2B`

element. We compute this subset.

gap> pos:= Filtered( Difference( pos, [ 2 ] ), i -> ForAny( pos, > j -> NrPolyhedralSubgroups( h, 2, i, j ).number <> 0 ) ); [ 4, 11 ]

The two classes have lengths 93150 and 7286400, thus the index of C in H is one of these numbers.

gap> SizesConjugacyClasses( h ){ pos }; [ 93150, 7286400 ]

Next we compute the number n_0 of `2B`

-pure Klein four groups in B.

gap> nr:= NrPolyhedralSubgroups( b, 3, 3, 3 ); rec( number := 14399283809600746875, type := "V4" ) gap> n0:= nr.number;;

The B-conjugacy class of V has length [B:N] = [B:H] ⋅ [H:C] / [N:C], where [N:C] divides 6. We see that [N:C] = 6 in both cases.

gap> cand:= List( pos, i -> Size( b ) / SizesCentralizers( h )[i] / 6 ); [ 181758140654146875, 14217525668946600000 ] gap> Sum( cand ) = n0; true

The orders of the normalizers of the two classes of `2B`

-pure Klein four groups are as claimed.

gap> List( cand, x -> Size( b ) / x ); [ 22858846741463040, 292229574819840 ]

The subgroup S of order n is contained in a maximal subgroup M of the type 2^2+10+20(M_22:2 × S_3) in B. The group M is the normalizer of a `2B`

-pure Klein four group in B, and the other class of normalizers of `2B`

-pure Klein four groups does not contain subgroups of order n. Thus the conjugates of S are uniquely determined by |S| and the property that they normalize `2B`

-pure Klein four groups.

gap> m:= mx[7]; CharacterTable( "2^(2+10+20).(M22.2xS3)" ) gap> Size( m ); 22858846741463040 gap> nsg:= ClassPositionsOfMinimalNormalSubgroups( m ); [ [ 1, 2 ] ] gap> SizesConjugacyClasses( m ){ nsg[1] }; [ 1, 3 ] gap> GetFusionMap( m, b ){ nsg[1] }; [ 1, 3 ] gap> List( cand, x -> Size( b ) / ( n * x ) ); [ 770, 315/32 ]

Now consider the subgroup S' of order n, which is contained in a maximal subgroup of the type 2^9+16S_8(2) in B. In order to prove that S' is B-conjugate to S, it is enough to show that S' normalizes a `2B`

-pure Klein four group.

The unique minimal normal subgroup V of 2^9+16S_8(2) has order 2^8. Its involutions lie in the class `2B`

of B.

gap> m:= mx[4]; CharacterTable( "2^(9+16).S8(2)" ) gap> nsg:= ClassPositionsOfMinimalNormalSubgroups( m ); [ [ 1, 2 ] ] gap> SizesConjugacyClasses( m ){ nsg[1] }; [ 1, 255 ] gap> GetFusionMap( m, b ){ nsg[1] }; [ 1, 3 ]

The group V is central in the normal subgroup W = 2^9+16, since all nonidentity elements of V lie in one conjugacy class of odd length. As a module for S_8(2), V is the unique irreducible eight-dimensional module in characteristic two.

gap> CharacterDegrees( CharacterTable( "S8(2)" ) mod 2 ); [ [ 1, 1 ], [ 8, 1 ], [ 16, 1 ], [ 26, 1 ], [ 48, 1 ], [ 128, 1 ], [ 160, 1 ], [ 246, 1 ], [ 416, 1 ], [ 768, 1 ], [ 784, 1 ], [ 2560, 1 ], [ 3936, 1 ], [ 4096, 1 ], [ 12544, 1 ], [ 65536, 1 ] ]

Hence we are done if the restriction of the S_8(2)-action on V to S'/W leaves a two-dimensional subspace of V invariant. In fact we show that already the restriction of the S_8(2)-action on V to the maximal subgroups of the structure 2^3+8:(S_3 × S_6) has a two-dimensional submodule.

These maximal subgroups have index 5355 in S_8(2). The primitive permutation representation of degree 5355 of S_8(2) and the irreducible eight-dimensional matrix representation of S_8(2) over the field with two elements are available via the **GAP** package **AtlasRep**, see [WPN+22]. We compute generators for an index 5355 subgroup in the matrix group via an isomorphism to the permutation group.

gap> permg:= AtlasGroup( "S8(2)", NrMovedPoints, 5355 ); <permutation group of size 47377612800 with 2 generators> gap> matg:= AtlasGroup( "S8(2)", Dimension, 8 ); <matrix group of size 47377612800 with 2 generators> gap> hom:= GroupHomomorphismByImagesNC( matg, permg, > GeneratorsOfGroup( matg ), GeneratorsOfGroup( permg ) );; gap> max:= PreImages( hom, Stabilizer( permg, 1 ) );;

These generators define the action of the index 5355 subgroup of S_8(2) on the eight-dimensional module. We compute the dimensions of the factors of an ascending composition series of this module.

gap> m:= GModuleByMats( GeneratorsOfGroup( max ), GF(2) );; gap> comp:= MTX.CompositionFactors( m );; gap> List( comp, r -> r.dimension ); [ 2, 4, 2 ]

The group M contains exactly two conjugacy classes of solvable subgroups of order n = 2849934139195392, and no larger solvable subgroups.

The maximal subgroups of the structure 2^1+24_+.Co_1 in the group M contain solvable subgroups S of order n and with the structure 2^1+24_+.2^4+12.(S_3 × 3^1+2_+:D_8), see [CCN+85, p. 234] and Section 6.4-10.

gap> n:= 2^25 * MaxSolv.( "Co1" ); 2849934139195392

The solvable subgroups of maximal order in groups of the types 2^2+11+22.(M_24 × S_3) and 2^[39].(L_3(2) × 3S_6) have order n.

gap> 2^(2+11+22) * MaxSolv.( "M24" ) * 6 = n; true gap> 2^39 * 24 * 3 * 72 = n; true

For inspecting the other maximal subgroups of M, we use the description from [NW13], which lists 44 classes of maximal subgroups of G, and states that any possible other maximal subgroup of G has socle isomorphic to one of L_2(13), Sz(8), U_3(4), U_3(8); so these maximal subgroups are isomorphic to subgroups of the automorphism groups of these groups – the maximum of these group orders is smaller than n, hence we may ignore these possible subgroups.

gap> cand:= [ "L2(13)", "Sz(8)", "U3(4)", "U3(8)" ];; gap> List( cand, nam -> ExtensionInfoCharacterTable( > CharacterTable( nam ) ) ); [ [ "2", "2" ], [ "2^2", "3" ], [ "", "4" ], [ "3", "(S3x3)" ] ] gap> ll:= List( cand, x -> Size( CharacterTable( x ) ) ); [ 1092, 29120, 62400, 5515776 ] gap> 18 * ll[4]; 99283968 gap> 2^39 * 24 * 3 * 72; 2849934139195392

*Remark* added in December 2023: The classes of maximal subgroups of G are classified in [DLP23]. As a consequence, The result is that there are no maximal subgroups with socle Sz(8) or U_3(8), and there is one class of maximal subgroups of each of the isomorphism types L_2(13).2 and U_3(4).4.

Thus only the following maximal subgroups of M have order bigger than |S|.

2.B | 2^1+24_+.Co_1 | 3.Fi_24 | 2^2.^2E_6(2):S_3 |

2^10+16.O_10^+(2) | 2^2+11+22.(M_24 × S_3) | 3^1+12_+.2Suz.2 | 2^5+10+20.(S_3 × L_5(2)) |

S_3 × Th | 2^[39].(L_3(2) × 3S_6) | 3^8.O_8^-(3).2_3 | (D_10 × HN).2 |

For the subgroups 2.B, 3.Fi_24, 3^1+12_+.2Suz.2, S_3 × Th, and (D_10 × HN).2, the solvable subgroups of maximal order are smaller than n.

gap> List( [ 2 * MaxSolv.( "B" ), > 6 * MaxSolv.( "Fi24'" ), > 3^13 * 2 * MaxSolv.( "Suz" ) * 2, > 6 * MaxSolv.( "Th" ), > 10 * MaxSolv.( "HN" ) * 2 ], i -> Int( i / n ) ); [ 0, 0, 0, 0, 0 ]

The subgroup 2^2.^2E_6(2):S_3 can be excluded by the fact that this group is only six times larger than the subgroup 2.^2E_6(2):2 of B, but n is 96 times larger than the maximal solvable subgroup in B.

gap> n / MaxSolv.( "B" ); 96

The group 3^8.O_8^-(3).2_3 can be excluded by the fact that a solvable subgroup of order at least n would imply the existence of a solvable subgroup of index at most 46 in O_8^-(3).2_3, which is not the case (see [CCN+85, p. 141]).

gap> Int( 3^8 * Size( CharacterTable( "O8-(3)" ) ) * 2 / n ); 46

Similarly, the existence of a solvable subgroup of order at least n in 2^5+10+20.(S_3 × L_5(2)) would imply the existence of a solvable subgroup of index at most 723 in L_5(2) and in turn of a solvable subgroup of index at most 23 in L_4(2), which is not the case (see [CCN+85, p. 70]).

gap> Int( 2^(10+16) * Size( CharacterTable( "O10+(2)" ) ) / n ); 553350 gap> Int( 2^(5+10+20) * 6 * Size( CharacterTable( "L5(2)" ) ) / n ); 723 gap> Int( 723 / 31 ); 23

It remains to exclude the subgroup 2^10+16.O_10^+(2), which means to show that O_10^+(2) does not contain a solvable subgroup of index at most 553350. If such a subgroup would exist then it would be contained in one of the following maximal subgroups of O_10^+(2) (see [CCN+85, p. 146]): in S_8(2) (of index at most 1115), in 2^8:O_8^+(2) (of index at most 1050), in 2^10:L_5(2) (of index at most 241), in (3 × O_8^-(2)):2 (of index at most 27), in (2^1+12_+:(S_3 × A_8) (of index at most 23), or in 2^3+12:(S_3 × S_3 × L_3(2)) (of index at most 4). By [CCN+85, pp. 123, 85, 70, 89, 22], this is not the case.

gap> index:= Int( 2^(10+16) * Size( CharacterTable( "O10+(2)" ) ) / n ); 553350 gap> List( [ 496, 527, 2295, 19840, 23715, 118575 ], i -> Int( index / i ) ); [ 1115, 1050, 241, 27, 23, 4 ]

As a consequence, we have shown that the largest solvable subgroups of M have order n.

gap> MaxSolv.( "M" ):= n;;

In order to prove the statement about the conjugacy of subgroups of order n in M, we first show the following.

Lemma:

The group M contains exactly three conjugacy classes of `2B`

-pure Klein four groups. Their normalizers in M have the orders 50472333605150392320, 259759622062080, and 9567039651840, respectively.

*Proof.* The idea is the same as for the Baby Monster group, see Section 6.4-13. Let V be a `2B`

-pure Klein four group in M, and set N = N_M(V). Let x ∈ V be an involution and set H = C_M(x), then H is maximal in M and has the structure 2^1+24_+.Co_1. The index of C = C_M(V) = C_H(V) in N divides 6, and C stabilizes the central involution in H and another `2B`

involution.

The group H contains exactly five conjugacy classes of `2B`

elements, three of them consist of elements that generate a `2B`

-pure Klein four group together with x.

gap> m:= CharacterTable( "M" );; gap> h:= CharacterTable( "2^1+24.Co1" ); CharacterTable( "2^1+24.Co1" ) gap> pos:= Positions( GetFusionMap( h, m ), 3 ); [ 2, 4, 7, 9, 16 ] gap> pos:= Filtered( Difference( pos, [ 2 ] ), i -> ForAny( pos, > j -> NrPolyhedralSubgroups( h, 2, i, j ).number <> 0 ) ); [ 4, 9, 16 ]

The two classes have lengths 93150 and 7286400, thus the index of C in H is one of these numbers.

gap> SizesConjugacyClasses( h ){ pos }; [ 16584750, 3222483264000, 87495303168000 ]

Next we compute the number n_0 of `2B`

-pure Klein four groups in M.

gap> nr:= NrPolyhedralSubgroups( m, 3, 3, 3 ); rec( number := 87569110066985387357550925521828244921875, type := "V4" ) gap> n0:= nr.number;;

The M-conjugacy class of V has length [M:N] = [M:H] ⋅ [H:C] / [N:C], where [N:C] divides 6. We see that [N:C] = 6 in both cases.

gap> cand:= List( pos, i -> Size( m ) / SizesCentralizers( h )[i] / 6 ); [ 16009115629875684006343550944921875, 3110635203347364905168577322802100000000, 84458458854522392576698341855475200000000 ] gap> Sum( cand ) = n0; true

The orders of the normalizers of the three classes of `2B`

-pure Klein four groups are as claimed.

gap> List( cand, x -> Size( m ) / x ); [ 50472333605150392320, 259759622062080, 9567039651840 ]

As we have seen above, the group M contains exactly the following (solvable) subgroups of order n.

One class in 2^1+24_+.Co_1 type subgroups,

one class in 2^2+11+22.(M_24 × S_3) type subgroups, and

two classes in 2^[39].(L_3(2) × 3S_6) type subgroups.

Note that 2^[39].(L_3(2) × 3S_6) contains an elementary abelian normal subgroup of order eight whose involutions lie in the class `2B`

, see [CCN+85, p. 234]. As a module for the group L_3(2), this normal subgroup is irreducible, and the restriction of the action to the two classes of S_4 type subgroups fixes a one- and a two-dimensional subspace, respectively. Hence we have one class of subgroups of order n that centralize a `2B`

element and one class of subgroups of order n that normalize a `2B`

-pure Klein four group. Clearly the subgroups in the first class coincide with the subgroups of order n in 2^1+24_+.Co_1 type subgroups. By the above classification of `2B`

-pure Klein four groups in M, the subgroups in the second class coincide with the subgroups of order n in 2^2+11+22.(M_24 × S_3) type subgroups.

It remains to show that the subgroups of order n do *not* stabilize both a `2B`

element *and* a `2B`

-pure Klein four group. We do this by direct computations with a 2^2+11+22.(M_24 × S_3) type group, which is available via the **AtlasRep** package, see [WPN+22].

First we fetch the group, and factor out the largest solvable normal subgroup, by suitable actions on blocks.

gap> g:= AtlasGroup( "2^(2+11+22).(M24xS3)" ); <permutation group of size 50472333605150392320 with 2 generators> gap> NrMovedPoints( g ); 294912 gap> bl:= Blocks( g, MovedPoints( g ) );; gap> Length( bl ); 147456 gap> hom1:= ActionHomomorphism( g, bl, OnSets );; gap> act1:= Image( hom1 );; gap> Size( g ) / Size( act1 ); 8192 gap> bl2:= Blocks( act1, MovedPoints( act1 ) );; gap> Length( bl2 ); 72 gap> hom2:= ActionHomomorphism( act1, bl2, OnSets );; gap> act2:= Image( hom2 );; gap> Size( act2 ); 1468938240 gap> Size( MathieuGroup( 24 ) ) * 6; 1468938240 gap> bl3:= AllBlocks( act2 );; gap> List( bl3, Length ); [ 24, 3 ] gap> bl3:= Orbit( act2, bl3[2], OnSets );; gap> hom3:= ActionHomomorphism( act2, bl3, OnSets );; gap> act3:= Image( hom3 );;

Now we compute an isomorphism from the factor group of type M_24 to the group that belongs to **GAP**'s table of marks. Then we use the information from the table of marks to compute a solvable subgroup of maximal order in M_24 (which is 13824), and take the preimage under the isomorphism. Finally, we take the preimage of this group in the original group.

gap> tom:= TableOfMarks( "M24" );; gap> tomgroup:= UnderlyingGroup( tom );; gap> iso:= IsomorphismGroups( act3, tomgroup );; gap> pos:= Positions( OrdersTom( tom ), 13824 ); [ 1508 ] gap> sub:= RepresentativeTom( tom, pos[1] );; gap> pre:= PreImages( iso, sub );; gap> pre:= PreImages( hom3, pre );; gap> pre:= PreImages( hom2, pre );; gap> pre:= PreImages( hom1, pre );; gap> Size( pre ) = n; true

The subgroups stabilizes a Klein four group. It does not stabilize a `2B`

element because its centre is trivial.

gap> pciso:= IsomorphismPcGroup( pre );; gap> Size( Centre( Image( pciso ) ) ); 1

With the computations in the previous sections, we have collected the information that is needed to show the corollary stated in Section 6.1.

gap> Filtered( Set( RecNames( MaxSolv ) ), > x -> MaxSolv.( x )^2 >= Size( CharacterTable( x ) ) ); [ "Fi23", "J2", "J2.2", "M11", "M12", "M22.2" ]

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