A *division ring* is a ring (see Chapter 56) in which every non-zero element has an inverse. The most important class of division rings are the commutative ones, which are called *fields*.

**GAP** supports finite fields (see Chapter 59) and abelian number fields (see Chapter 60), in particular the field of rationals (see Chapter 17).

This chapter describes the general **GAP** functions for fields and division rings.

If a field `F` is a subfield of a commutative ring `C`, `C` can be considered as a vector space over the (left) acting domain `F` (see Chapter 61). In this situation, we call `F` the *field of definition* of `C`.

Each field in **GAP** is represented as a vector space over a subfield (see `IsField`

(58.1-2)), thus each field is in fact a field extension in a natural way, which is used by functions such as `Norm`

(58.3-4) and `Trace`

(58.3-5) (see 58.3).

`‣ IsDivisionRing` ( D ) | ( category ) |

A *division ring* in **GAP** is a nontrivial associative algebra `D` with a multiplicative inverse for each nonzero element. In **GAP** every division ring is a vector space over a division ring (possibly over itself). Note that being a division ring is thus not a property that a ring can get, because a ring is usually not represented as a vector space.

The field of coefficients is stored as the value of the attribute `LeftActingDomain`

(57.1-11) of `D`.

`‣ IsField` ( D ) | ( filter ) |

A *field* is a commutative division ring (see `IsDivisionRing`

(58.1-1) and `IsCommutative`

(35.4-9)).

gap> IsField( GaloisField(16) ); # the field with 16 elements true gap> IsField( Rationals ); # the field of rationals true gap> q:= QuaternionAlgebra( Rationals );; # noncommutative division ring gap> IsField( q ); IsDivisionRing( q ); false true gap> mat:= [ [ 1 ] ];; a:= Algebra( Rationals, [ mat ] );; gap> IsDivisionRing( a ); # algebra not constructed as a division ring false

`‣ Field` ( z, ... ) | ( function ) |

`‣ Field` ( [F, ]list ) | ( function ) |

`Field`

returns the smallest field \(K\) that contains all the elements \(\textit{z}, \ldots\), or the smallest field \(K\) that contains all elements in the list `list`. If no subfield `F` is given, \(K\) is constructed as a field over itself, i.e. the left acting domain of \(K\) is \(K\). Called with a field `F` and a list `list`, `Field`

constructs the field generated by `F` and the elements in `list`, as a vector space over `F`.

`‣ DefaultField` ( z, ... ) | ( function ) |

`‣ DefaultField` ( list ) | ( function ) |

`DefaultField`

returns a field \(K\) that contains all the elements \(\textit{z}, \ldots\), or a field \(K\) that contains all elements in the list `list`.

This field need not be the smallest field in which the elements lie, cf. `Field`

(58.1-3). For example, for elements from cyclotomic fields `DefaultField`

returns the smallest cyclotomic field in which the elements lie, but the elements may lie in a smaller number field which is not a cyclotomic field.

gap> Field( Z(4) ); Field( [ Z(4), Z(8) ] ); # finite fields GF(2^2) GF(2^6) gap> Field( E(9) ); Field( CF(4), [ E(9) ] ); # abelian number fields CF(9) AsField( GaussianRationals, CF(36) ) gap> f1:= Field( EB(5) ); f2:= DefaultField( EB(5) ); NF(5,[ 1, 4 ]) CF(5) gap> f1 = f2; IsSubset( f2, f1 ); false true

`‣ DefaultFieldByGenerators` ( [z, ...] ) | ( operation ) |

returns the default field containing the elements `z`, \(\ldots\). This field may be bigger than the smallest field containing these elements.

`‣ GeneratorsOfDivisionRing` ( D ) | ( attribute ) |

generators with respect to addition, multiplication, and taking inverses (the identity cannot be omitted ...)

`‣ GeneratorsOfField` ( F ) | ( attribute ) |

generators with respect to addition, multiplication, and taking inverses. This attribute is the same as `GeneratorsOfDivisionRing`

(58.1-6).

`‣ DivisionRingByGenerators` ( [F, ]gens ) | ( operation ) |

`‣ FieldByGenerators` ( [F, ]gens ) | ( operation ) |

Called with a field `F` and a list `gens` of scalars, `DivisionRingByGenerators`

returns the division ring over `F` generated by `gens`. The unary version returns the division ring as vector space over `FieldOverItselfByGenerators( `

.`gens` )

`FieldByGenerators`

is just a synonym for `DivisionRingByGenerators`

.

`‣ AsDivisionRing` ( [F, ]C ) | ( operation ) |

`‣ AsField` ( [F, ]C ) | ( operation ) |

If the collection `C` can be regarded as a division ring then `AsDivisionRing( `

is the division ring that consists of the elements of `C` )`C`, viewed as a vector space over its prime field; otherwise `fail`

is returned.

In the second form, if `F` is a division ring contained in `C` then the returned division ring is viewed as a vector space over `F`.

`AsField`

is just a synonym for `AsDivisionRing`

.

`‣ Subfield` ( F, gens ) | ( function ) |

`‣ SubfieldNC` ( F, gens ) | ( function ) |

Constructs the subfield of `F` generated by `gens`.

`‣ FieldOverItselfByGenerators` ( [z, ...] ) | ( operation ) |

This operation is needed for the call of `Field`

(58.1-3) or `FieldByGenerators`

(58.1-8) without explicitly given subfield, in order to construct a left acting domain for such a field.

`‣ PrimitiveElement` ( D ) | ( attribute ) |

is an element of `D` that generates `D` as a division ring together with the left acting domain.

`‣ PrimeField` ( D ) | ( attribute ) |

The *prime field* of a division ring `D` is the smallest field which is contained in `D`. For example, the prime field of any field in characteristic zero is isomorphic to the field of rational numbers.

`‣ IsPrimeField` ( D ) | ( property ) |

A division ring is a prime field if it is equal to its prime field (see `PrimeField`

(58.2-4)).

`‣ DegreeOverPrimeField` ( F ) | ( attribute ) |

is the degree of the field `F` over its prime field (see `PrimeField`

(58.2-4)).

`‣ DefiningPolynomial` ( F ) | ( attribute ) |

is the defining polynomial of the field `F` as a field extension over the left acting domain of `F`. A root of the defining polynomial can be computed with `RootOfDefiningPolynomial`

(58.2-8).

`‣ RootOfDefiningPolynomial` ( F ) | ( attribute ) |

is a root in the field `F` of its defining polynomial as a field extension over the left acting domain of `F`. The defining polynomial can be computed with `DefiningPolynomial`

(58.2-7).

`‣ FieldExtension` ( F, poly ) | ( operation ) |

is the field obtained on adjoining a root of the irreducible polynomial `poly` to the field `F`.

`‣ Subfields` ( F ) | ( attribute ) |

is the set of all subfields of the field `F`.

Let \(L > K\) be a field extension of finite degree. Then to each element \(\alpha \in L\), we can associate a \(K\)-linear mapping \(\varphi_{\alpha}\) on \(L\), and for a fixed \(K\)-basis of \(L\), we can associate to \(\alpha\) the matrix \(M_{\alpha}\) (over \(K\)) of this mapping.

The *norm* of \(\alpha\) is defined as the determinant of \(M_{\alpha}\), the *trace* of \(\alpha\) is defined as the trace of \(M_{\alpha}\), the *minimal polynomial* \(\mu_{\alpha}\) and the *trace polynomial* \(\chi_{\alpha}\) of \(\alpha\) are defined as the minimal polynomial (see 58.3-2) and the characteristic polynomial (see `CharacteristicPolynomial`

(24.13-1) and `TracePolynomial`

(58.3-3)) of \(M_{\alpha}\). (Note that \(\mu_{\alpha}\) depends only on \(K\) whereas \(\chi_{\alpha}\) depends on both \(L\) and \(K\).)

Thus norm and trace of \(\alpha\) are elements of \(K\), and \(\mu_{\alpha}\) and \(\chi_{\alpha}\) are polynomials over \(K\), \(\chi_{\alpha}\) being a power of \(\mu_{\alpha}\), and the degree of \(\chi_{\alpha}\) equals the degree of the field extension \(L > K\).

The *conjugates* of \(\alpha\) in \(L\) are those roots of \(\chi_{\alpha}\) (with multiplicity) that lie in \(L\); note that if only \(L\) is given, there is in general no way to access the roots outside \(L\).

Analogously, the *Galois group* of the extension \(L > K\) is defined as the group of all those field automorphisms of \(L\) that fix \(K\) pointwise.

If \(L > K\) is a Galois extension then the conjugates of \(\alpha\) are all roots of \(\chi_{\alpha}\) (with multiplicity), the set of conjugates equals the roots of \(\mu_{\alpha}\), the norm of \(\alpha\) equals the product and the trace of \(\alpha\) equals the sum of the conjugates of \(\alpha\), and the Galois group in the sense of the above definition equals the usual Galois group,

Note that `MinimalPolynomial( `

is a polynomial `F`, `z` )*over* `F`, whereas `Norm( `

is the norm of the element `F`, `z` )`z` *in* `F` w.r.t. the field extension

.`F` > LeftActingDomain( `F` )

The default methods for field elements are as follows. `MinimalPolynomial`

(66.8-1) solves a system of linear equations, `TracePolynomial`

(58.3-3) computes the appropriate power of the minimal polynomial, `Norm`

(58.3-4) and `Trace`

(58.3-5) values are obtained as coefficients of the characteristic polynomial, and `Conjugates`

(58.3-6) uses the factorization of the characteristic polynomial.

For elements in finite fields and cyclotomic fields, one wants to do the computations in a different way since the field extensions in question are Galois extensions, and the Galois groups are well-known in these cases. More general, if a field is in the category `IsFieldControlledByGaloisGroup`

then the default methods are the following. `Conjugates`

(58.3-6) returns the sorted list of images (with multiplicity) of the element under the Galois group, `Norm`

(58.3-4) computes the product of the conjugates, `Trace`

(58.3-5) computes the sum of the conjugates, `TracePolynomial`

(58.3-3) and `MinimalPolynomial`

(66.8-1) compute the product of linear factors \(x - c\) with \(c\) ranging over the conjugates and the set of conjugates, respectively.

`‣ GaloisGroup` ( F ) | ( attribute ) |

The *Galois group* of a field `F` is the group of all field automorphisms of `F` that fix the subfield \(K = \)`LeftActingDomain( `

pointwise.`F` )

Note that the field extension \(\textit{F} > K\) need *not* be a Galois extension.

gap> g:= GaloisGroup( AsField( GF(2^2), GF(2^12) ) );; gap> Size( g ); IsCyclic( g ); 6 true gap> h:= GaloisGroup( CF(60) );; gap> Size( h ); IsAbelian( h ); 16 true

`‣ MinimalPolynomial` ( F, z[, ind] ) | ( operation ) |

returns the minimal polynomial of `z` over the field `F`. This is a generator of the ideal in \(\textit{F}[x]\) of all polynomials which vanish on `z`. (This definition is consistent with the general definition of `MinimalPolynomial`

(66.8-1) for rings.)

gap> MinimalPolynomial( Rationals, E(8) ); x_1^4+1 gap> MinimalPolynomial( CF(4), E(8) ); x_1^2+(-E(4)) gap> MinimalPolynomial( CF(8), E(8) ); x_1+(-E(8))

`‣ TracePolynomial` ( L, K, z[, inum] ) | ( operation ) |

returns the polynomial that is the product of \((X - c)\) where \(c\) runs over the conjugates of `z` in the field extension `L` over `K`. The polynomial is returned as a univariate polynomial over `K` in the indeterminate number `inum` (defaulting to 1).

This polynomial is sometimes also called the *characteristic polynomial* of `z` w.r.t. the field extension \(\textit{L} > \textit{K}\). Therefore methods are installed for `CharacteristicPolynomial`

(24.13-1) that call `TracePolynomial`

in the case of field extensions.

gap> TracePolynomial( CF(8), Rationals, E(8) ); x_1^4+1 gap> TracePolynomial( CF(16), Rationals, E(8) ); x_1^8+2*x_1^4+1

`‣ Norm` ( [L, [K, ]]z ) | ( attribute ) |

`Norm`

returns the norm of the field element `z`. If two fields `L` and `K` are given then the norm is computed w.r.t. the field extension `L`\( > \)`K`, if only one field `L` is given then `LeftActingDomain( `

is taken as default for the subfield `L` )`K`, and if no field is given then `DefaultField( `

is taken as default for `z` )`L`.

`‣ Trace` ( [L, [K, ]]z ) | ( attribute ) |

`‣ Trace` ( mat ) | ( attribute ) |

`Trace`

returns the trace of the field element `z`. If two fields `L` and `K` are given then the trace is computed w.r.t. the field extension \(\textit{L} > \textit{K}\), if only one field `L` is given then `LeftActingDomain( `

is taken as default for the subfield `L` )`K`, and if no field is given then `DefaultField( `

is taken as default for `z` )`L`.

The *trace of a matrix* is the sum of its diagonal entries. Note that this is *not* compatible with the definition of `Trace`

for field elements, so the one-argument version is not suitable when matrices shall be regarded as field elements.

`‣ Conjugates` ( [L, [K, ]]z ) | ( attribute ) |

`Conjugates`

returns the list of *conjugates* of the field element `z`. If two fields `L` and `K` are given then the conjugates are computed w.r.t. the field extension `L`\( > \)`K`, if only one field `L` is given then `LeftActingDomain( `

is taken as default for the subfield `L` )`K`, and if no field is given then `DefaultField( `

is taken as default for `z` )`L`.

The result list will contain duplicates if `z` lies in a proper subfield of `L`, or of the default field of `z`, respectively. The result list need not be sorted.

gap> Norm( E(8) ); Norm( CF(8), E(8) ); 1 1 gap> Norm( CF(8), CF(4), E(8) ); -E(4) gap> Norm( AsField( CF(4), CF(8) ), E(8) ); -E(4) gap> Trace( E(8) ); Trace( CF(8), CF(8), E(8) ); 0 E(8) gap> Conjugates( CF(8), E(8) ); [ E(8), E(8)^3, -E(8), -E(8)^3 ] gap> Conjugates( CF(8), CF(4), E(8) ); [ E(8), -E(8) ] gap> Conjugates( CF(16), E(8) ); [ E(8), E(8)^3, -E(8), -E(8)^3, E(8), E(8)^3, -E(8), -E(8)^3 ]

`‣ NormalBase` ( F[, elm] ) | ( attribute ) |

Let `F` be a field that is a Galois extension of its subfield `LeftActingDomain( `

. Then `F` )`NormalBase`

returns a list of elements in `F` that form a normal basis of `F`, that is, a vector space basis that is closed under the action of the Galois group (see `GaloisGroup`

(58.3-1)) of `F`.

If a second argument `elm` is given, it is used as a hint for the algorithm to find a normal basis with the algorithm described in [Art73].

gap> NormalBase( CF(5) ); [ -E(5), -E(5)^2, -E(5)^3, -E(5)^4 ] gap> NormalBase( CF(4) ); [ 1/2-1/2*E(4), 1/2+1/2*E(4) ] gap> NormalBase( GF(3^6) ); [ Z(3^6)^2, Z(3^6)^6, Z(3^6)^18, Z(3^6)^54, Z(3^6)^162, Z(3^6)^486 ] gap> NormalBase( GF( GF(8), 2 ) ); [ Z(2^6), Z(2^6)^8 ]

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