Before describing general functions for computing induced structures, we consider coproducts of crossed modules which provide induced crossed modules in certain cases.

Need to add here a reference (or two) for coproducts.

`‣ CoproductXMod` ( X1, X2 ) | ( operation ) |

`‣ CoproductInfo` ( X0 ) | ( attribute ) |

This function calculates the coproduct crossed module of two or more crossed modules which have a common range \(R\). The standard method applies to \(\calX_1 = (\partial_1 : S_1 \to R)\) and \(\calX_2 = (\partial_2 : S_2 \to R)\). See below for the case of three or more crossed modules.

The source \(S_2\) of \(\calX_2\) acts on \(S_1\) via \(\partial_2\) and the action of \(\calX_1\), so we can form a precrossed module \((\partial' : S_1 \ltimes S_2 \to R)\) where \(\partial'(s_1,s_2) = (\partial_1 s_1)(\partial_2 s_2)\). The action of this precrossed module is the diagonal action \((s_1,s_2)^r = (s_1^r,s_2^r)\). Factoring out by the Peiffer subgroup, we obtain the coproduct crossed module \(\calX_1 \circ \calX_2\).

In the example the structure descriptions of the precrossed module, the Peiffer subgroup, and the resulting coproduct are printed out when `InfoLevel(InfoXMod)`

is at least \(1\). The coproduct comes supplied with attribute `CoproductInfo`

, which includes the embedding morphisms of the two factors.

gap> q8 := Group( (1,2,3,4)(5,8,7,6), (1,5,3,7)(2,6,4,8) );; gap> XAq8 := XModByAutomorphismGroup( q8 );; gap> s4b := Range( XAq8 );; gap> SetName( q8, "q8" ); SetName( s4b, "s4b" ); gap> a := q8.1;; b := q8.2;; gap> alpha := GroupHomomorphismByImages( q8, q8, [a,b], [a^-1,b] );; gap> beta := GroupHomomorphismByImages( q8, q8, [a,b], [a,b^-1] );; gap> k4b := Subgroup( s4b, [ alpha, beta ] );; SetName( k4b, "k4b" ); gap> Z8 := XModByNormalSubgroup( s4b, k4b );; gap> SetName( XAq8, "XAq8" ); SetName( Z8, "Z8" ); gap> SetInfoLevel( InfoXMod, 1 ); gap> XZ8 := CoproductXMod( XAq8, Z8 ); #I prexmod is [ [ 32, 47 ], [ 24, 12 ] ] #I peiffer subgroup is C2, [ 2, 1 ] #I the coproduct is [ "C2 x C2 x C2 x C2", "S4" ], [ [ 16, 14 ], [ 24, 12 ] ] [Group( [ f1, f2, f3, f4 ] )->s4b] gap> SetName( XZ8, "XZ8" ); gap> info := CoproductInfo( XZ8 ); rec( embeddings := [ [XAq8 => XZ8], [Z8 => XZ8] ], xmods := [ XAq8, Z8 ] ) gap> SetInfoLevel( InfoXMod, 0 );

Given a list of more than two crossed modules with a common range \(R\), then an iterated coproduct is formed:

\[ \bigcirc~\left[ \calX_1,\calX_2,\ldots,\calX_n\right] ~=~ \calX_1 \circ (\calX_2 \circ ( \ldots (\calX_{n-1} \circ \calX_n) \ldots ) ). \]

The `embeddings`

field of the `CoproductInfo`

of the resulting crossed module \(\calY\) contains the \(n\) morphisms \(\epsilon_i : \calX_i \to \calY (1 \leqslant i \leqslant n)\).

gap> Y := CoproductXMod( [ XAq8, XAq8, Z8, Z8 ] ); [Group( [ f1, f2, f3, f4, f5, f6, f7, f8 ] )->s4b] gap> StructureDescription( Y ); [ "C2 x C2 x C2 x C2 x C2 x C2 x C2 x C2", "S4" ] gap> CoproductInfo( Y ); rec( embeddings := [ [XAq8 => [Group( [ f1, f2, f3, f4, f5, f6, f7, f8 ] ) -> s4b]], [XAq8 => [Group( [ f1, f2, f3, f4, f5, f6, f7, f8 ] ) -> s4b]], [Z8 => [Group( [ f1, f2, f3, f4, f5, f6, f7, f8 ] ) -> s4b]], [Z8 => [Group( [ f1, f2, f3, f4, f5, f6, f7, f8 ] ) -> s4b]] ], xmods := [ XAq8, XAq8, Z8, Z8 ] )

`‣ InducedXMod` ( args ) | ( function ) |

`‣ IsInducedXMod` ( xmod ) | ( property ) |

`‣ InducedXModBySurjection` ( xmod, hom ) | ( operation ) |

`‣ InducedXModByCopower` ( xmod, hom, list ) | ( operation ) |

`‣ MorphismOfInducedXMod` ( xmod ) | ( attribute ) |

A morphism of crossed modules \((\sigma, \rho) : \calX_1 \to \calX_2\) factors uniquely through an induced crossed module \(\rho_{\ast} \calX_1 = (\delta : \rho_{\ast} S_1 \to R_2)\). Similarly, a morphism of cat1-groups factors through an induced cat1-group. Calculation of induced crossed modules of \(\calX\) also provides an algebraic means of determining the homotopy \(2\)-type of homotopy pushouts of the classifying space of \(\calX\). For more background from algebraic topology see references in [BH78], [BW95], [BW96]. Induced crossed modules and induced cat1-groups also provide the building blocks for constructing pushouts in the categories *XMod* and *Cat1*.

Data for the cases of algebraic interest is provided by a crossed module \(\calX = (\partial : S \to R)\) and a homomorphism \(\iota : R \to Q\). The output from the calculation is a crossed module \(\iota_{\ast}\calX = (\delta : \iota_{\ast}S \to Q)\) together with a morphism of crossed modules \(\calX \to \iota_{\ast}\calX\). When \(\iota\) is a surjection with kernel \(K\) then \(\iota_{\ast}S = S/[K,S]\) where \([K,S]\) is the subgroup of \(S\) generated by elements of the form \(s^{-1}s^k, s \in S, k \in K\) (see [BH78], Prop.9). (For many years, up until June 2018, this manual has stated the result to be \([K,S]\), though the correct quotient had been calculated.) When \(\iota\) is an inclusion the induced crossed module may be calculated using a copower construction [BW95] or, in the case when \(R\) is normal in \(Q\), as a coproduct of crossed modules ([BW96], but not yet implemented). When \(\iota\) is neither a surjection nor an inclusion, \(\iota\) is factored as the composite of the surjection onto the image and the inclusion of the image in \(Q\), and then the composite induced crossed module is constructed. These constructions use Tietze transformation routines in the library file `tietze.gi`

.

As a first, surjective example, we take for \(\calX\) the normal inclusion crossed module of `a4`

in `s4`

, and for \(\iota\) the surjection from `s4`

to `s3`

with kernel `k4`

. The induced crossed module is isomorphic to `X3 = [c3->s3]`

.

gap> s4gens := GeneratorsOfGroup( s4 ); [ (1,2), (2,3), (3,4) ] gap> a4gens := GeneratorsOfGroup( a4 ); [ (1,2,3), (2,3,4) ] gap> s3b := Group( (5,6),(6,7) );; SetName( s3b, "s3b" ); gap> epi := GroupHomomorphismByImages( s4, s3b, s4gens, [(5,6),(6,7),(5,6)] );; gap> X4 := XModByNormalSubgroup( s4, a4 );; gap> indX4 := InducedXModBySurjection( X4, epi ); [a4/ker->s3b] gap> Display( indX4 ); Crossed module [a4/ker->s3b] :- : Source group a4/ker has generators: [ (1,3,2), (1,2,3) ] : Range group s3b has generators: [ (5,6), (6,7) ] : Boundary homomorphism maps source generators to: [ (5,6,7), (5,7,6) ] : Action homomorphism maps range generators to automorphisms: (5,6) --> { source gens --> [ (1,2,3), (1,3,2) ] } (6,7) --> { source gens --> [ (1,2,3), (1,3,2) ] } These 2 automorphisms generate the group of automorphisms. gap> morX4 := MorphismOfInducedXMod( indX4 ); [[a4->s4] => [a4/ker->s3b]]

For a second, injective example we take for \(\calX\) the automorphism crossed module `XAq8`

of `CoproductXMod`

(7.1-1), and for \(\iota\) an inclusion of `s4b`

in `s5`

. The resulting source group is `SL(2,5)`

.

gap> iso4 := IsomorphismGroups( s4b, s4 );; gap> s5 := Group( (1,2,3,4,5), (4,5) );; gap> SetName( s5, "s5" ); gap> inc45 := InclusionMappingGroups( s5, s4 );; gap> iota45 := iso4 * inc45;; gap> indXAq8 := InducedXMod( XAq8, iota45 ); i*(XAq8) gap> Size2d( indXAq8 ); [ 120, 120 ] gap> StructureDescription( indXAq8 ); [ "SL(2,5)", "S5" ]

For a third example we use the version `InducedXMod(Q,R,S)`

of this global function, with \(Q \geqslant R \unrhd S\). We take the identity mapping on `s3c`

as boundary, and the inclusion of `s3c`

in `s4`

as \(\iota\). The induced group is a general linear group `GL(2,3)`

.

gap> s3c := Subgroup( s4, [ (2,3), (3,4) ] );; gap> SetName( s3c, "s3c" ); gap> indXs3c := InducedXMod( s4, s3c, s3c ); i*([s3c->s3c]) gap> StructureDescription( indXs3c ); [ "GL(2,3)", "S4" ]

`‣ AllInducedXMods` ( Q ) | ( operation ) |

This function calculates all the induced crossed modules `InducedXMod(Q,R,S)`

, where `R`

runs over all conjugacy classes of subgroups of `Q`

and `S`

runs over all non-trivial normal subgroups of `R`

.

gap> all := AllInducedXMods( q8 );; gap> ids := List( all, x -> IdGroup(x) );; gap> Sort( ids ); gap> ids; [ [ [ 1, 1 ], [ 8, 4 ] ], [ [ 1, 1 ], [ 8, 4 ] ], [ [ 1, 1 ], [ 8, 4 ] ], [ [ 1, 1 ], [ 8, 4 ] ], [ [ 4, 2 ], [ 8, 4 ] ], [ [ 4, 2 ], [ 8, 4 ] ], [ [ 4, 2 ], [ 8, 4 ] ], [ [ 16, 2 ], [ 8, 4 ] ], [ [ 16, 2 ], [ 8, 4 ] ], [ [ 16, 2 ], [ 8, 4 ] ], [ [ 16, 14 ], [ 8, 4 ] ] ]

`‣ InducedCat1Group` ( args ) | ( function ) |

`‣ InducedCat1GroupByFreeProduct` ( grp, hom ) | ( property ) |

This area awaits development.

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